Affichage de 759 résultats

Notice d'autorité
Committee of Leases
GB0192-65 · Collectivité · 1704-1813

The surviving records cover the period 1704-1773 and 1779-1814 but this may not represent the full length of the committee's activity.
See also Estates Committee (1884-1974)

Peasholme Centre
GB0192-650 · Collectivité · 1982-present

Brunswick Terrace Hostel is a hostel for the homeless population in York. It originally opened in Kent Street, before moving to Brunswick Terrace shortly afterwards. The inadequacies of the accommodation later led to the opening of the Peasholme Centre in Peasholme Green in the 1990s, the first all purpose centre for the homeless in York.

The focus of the hostel changed over time from being a direct access hostel to one more focussed on helping people move into more permanent accommodation relatively quickly.

In around 2006 the hostel moved to nearby Fishergate, to allow for the redevelopment of the Hungate site.

Benton; Robert (1899-?)
GB0192-651 · Personne · 1899-?

Benton was born in York on 7th February 1899. He was raised in York and went on to work on the railways. He signed up to fight during the First World War, and returned home injured in 1918 following the loss of his lower left arm and a bone in his right arm. His date of death is currently unknown.

York Guild of Building
GB0192-653 · Collectivité · 1954-present

The York Guild of Building was established in 1954 under the guidance of Sir Peter Shepherd and a number of other leading citizens connected with the construction industry, as well as professional organisations within the city, to represent and provide a forum for all the skills which are required in the construction and maintenance of buildings. This representation inspired the Guild logo.

The builders of medieval York included masons, glaziers, plumbers, plasterers and tilers and the largest of the entire group who worked in wood, variously described as carpenters, sawyers, joiners and carvers. Of these only four crafts became organised into Guilds: the Carpenters, the Masons, the Tile Thatchers and the Plasterers. However these Guilds came to an end in York in the early nineteenth century.

The Guild operates with a Court of Assistants under the leadership of the Master for the year, assisted by Senior and Junior Wardens. Five members of the Court are elected annually by the membership. In addition several organisations connected with the construction industry nominate representatives, together with York College. Membership is open to any person involved in any aspect of building and associated activities. The day to day running of the Guild is in the care of the Honorary Clerk.

The Guild is committed to the advancement of design, management, science and craft in building and the better understanding of the problems and achievements of those engaged in building.

To support the objectives of the Guild a very full programme of lectures, talks and visits, complimented by a range of social activities is produced by the court each year.

Crombie Avenue Nursery, Clifton
GB0192-655 · Collectivité · 20th century-20th century

Crombie Avenue Nursery was a pre-school nursery in York.

Cartwright; Charles (?-?)
GB0192-656 · Personne · ?-?

Charles Cartwright was Under Sheriff to Sir William Saint Quintin, High Sheriff of the County of York 1729-30.

Cattle; family
GB0192-657 · Famille · ?-?

The Cattle family was a family based in York and the surrounding area for a number of generations. A history of the family, including alternative spellings of the name, was compiled by a member of the family in 2004.

Council for British Archaeology
GB0192-658 · Collectivité · 1944-present

The Council was founded in 1944 for the 'safeguarding of all kinds of archaeological material and the strengthening of existing measures for the care of ancient and historic buildings, monuments, and antiquities' and to improve public education about archaeology.

The organisation has grown over the years and is now a charity registered in England and Wales (no 287815) and in Scotland (no SC041971). It is also a Company Limited by Guarantee, registered in England No. 1760254.

J Kendrew, York printer
GB0192-659 · Collectivité · 19th century

J Kendrew was a printer based in Colliergate, York, in the first quarter of the 19th century. He appears to have specialised in chapbooks, including penny books and larger format versions.

Estates Committee
GB0192-66 · Collectivité · 1884-1974

The Estates Committee was responsible for the city estate including the bar walls and corporation property (used for both public and private purposes). It also included assets such as the city plate and weaponry.
See also the Committee of Leases (1703-1813) and Housing Committee (1920-1974). Allotment functions transferred to Parks Comittee in 1913. Instructed City Surveyor.

GB0192-660 · Collectivité · 1974-2002

Community Health Councils were set up in the 1974 NHS reorganisation to represent the interests of consumers in the health districts. Their role was to investigate, inspect, advise and comment on local healthcare facilities. Each year they were to report to their establishing authority. As originally constituted Community Health Councils were composed of 30 members, half of which were local authority appointees, and of the remainder, two thirds were from voluntary organisations and one third were appointed by the regional health authority. After the NHS restructuring in 1982, CHCs were reduced in size to 24 members, but with the same proportion of representatives. CHCs also employed a small number of offiers.

The Community Health Council for the York Health District was established by, and reported to, the Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. In 1974 it was coterminus with the York Health District, and from 1982, with York Health Authority. Through subsequent reorganisation it continued to represent people in York Health District, an area covering York, Easingwold, Selby and Tadcaster. In 2002 a Parliamentary Act was passed to abolishh the Community Health Councils, and to replace them with Patients' Councils.

York Celebrations Choir
GB0192-661 · Collectivité · 1960s-1976

York Celebrations Choir was formed in the 1960s out of a desire to amalgamate York's many small and medium-sized choirs. The aim was to create a 'choir of large forces which would be able to undertake major choral works.' The plan was to have around 400 voices. After a series of meetings the choir was formed and the first concert took place on 7 November 1970 in York Minster. The choir became a major element of the York 1900th celebrations in 1971.

The choir took part in numerous concerts and had nine appearances on Yorkshire Television's Stars on Sunday programme. This led to formal recordings, and the release of three LPs.

The choir formally ceased to exist in 1976.

Chapman; Harry (1882-1925)
GB0192-662 · Personne · 1882-1925

Harry Chapman was a resident of York, and a Serjeant in the West Yorkshire Regiment in the years before the First World War. He married Hester Chapman (although known as Esther) in 1909 at St Denys' Church, York and had at least two children. He died in 1925 at Fairfield Sanatorium in York.

Clements Hall Local History Group
GB0192-663 · Collectivité · 2013-present

Clements Hall Local History Group was founded in 2013, following a series of local history events at Clements Hall in York. The group covers the areas of Scarcroft, Clementhorpe and South Bank in York, to the south of the city walls and west of the River Ouse. The group stage exhibitions around York, including at Clements Hall, York Explore Library, York Cemetery Chapel, Rowntree Park and the Winning Post pub. In 2016 the Local History Group began an annual programme of talks and walks, performances and occasional workshops.

The group meets monthly at Clements Hall, near Scarcroft School in York.

Robinson; family
GB0192-664 · Famille · 1100-2000

William Robinson (d. 1616), Lord Mayor of York in 1581, acquired estates in and near York (Clifton and Rawcliffe, North Riding) and at Newby (near Topcliffe, North Riding). Sir William Robinson, fourth Bt (d. 1770), of Newby Park, sold the reversion of the Clifton estate to his uncle Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham (d. 1770), a younger son of Sir William Robinson, first Bt (d. 1736). Following the death of the 4th Bt without issue, the 3rd Baron Grantham (1781-1859) succeeded to the remaining unsold estates of the senior Robinson line, including Newby and Dishforth (North Riding) and property in Wensleydale (Askrigg, etc, North Riding). He also inherited Newby Hall (near Ripon, West Riding) and other estates of the Weddell family; and in 1833 succeeded to the Wrest Park estates as second Earl De Grey.

On Lord De Grey's death in 1859 the De Grey estates passed to his elder daughter Ann, Baroness Lucas, who married the 6th Earl Cowper, and the Newby Hall estate to his younger daughter Lady Mary Vyner. Of the Robinson properties, the Askrigg and Clifton estates passed to the Cowper and Vyner families, but the Newby Park estate passed to Lord De Grey's nephew George Robinson, 2nd Earl and 1st Marquess of Ripon (1827-1909).

Frederick Robinson (1782-1859), younger brother of the 2nd Earl De Grey and Prime Minister 1827-8, was created Viscount Goderich in 1827 and Earl of Ripon in 1833. In 1814 he married Sarah, only daughter of the 4th Earl of Buckinghamshire (d. 1816), through whom he succeeded to the Nocton (Lincolnshire) estate inherited by the 3rd Earl from the Ellis family. In 1845, on the death of Elizabeth Lawrence, he further succeeded to the West Riding estates of her grandfather William Aislabie (d. 1781), including Studley Royal, inherited through Aislabie's mother from the Mallory family, and the adjoining Fountains Abbey estate, purchased in 1767.

Following the death of the 2nd Marquess of Ripon in 1923 the Studley Royal and Fountains Abbey estate was acquired by his cousin Clare George Vyner, younger son of Lady Alwyne Compton-Vyner.

Estates in 1883: Yorks NR and WR 14,668 acres, Lincs 7,102 acres, total 21,770 acres worth £29,126 a year.

Marriage Care (York branch)
GB0192-665 · Collectivité · 1960s-present

Marriage Care was established as a charity in 1946 to support families in the Catholic community whose relationships came under stress after the trauma and upheaval of World War II. It is not known exactly when the York branch opened, however it is likely to be sometime between 1953 and 1969, when the organisation was called the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council.

Now Marriage Care is a national charity, serving the whole community from over 50 centres across England and Wales, with a network of trained volunteers. Every Marriage Care specialist undertakes a rigorous training programme and operates to professional standards. Marriage Care is an organisational member of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy.

The organisation continues to offer various forms of relationship counselling.

GB0192-666 · Collectivité · ?-2017

The Church Mission Society was founded in Aldersgate Street in the City of London on 12 April 1799. Most of the founders were members of the Clapham Sect, a group of activist evangelical Christians. They included Henry Thornton MP and William Wilberforce MP. The founders of CMS were committed to three great enterprises: abolition of the slave trade, social reform at home and world evangelisation.

Wilberforce was asked to be the first president of the Society but he declined due to his workload but took on the office of vice president. Thornton became the first treasurer. The Rev Josiah Pratt, curate of St John, Bedford Row (London) soon emerged in a proto-chief executive role.

The spiritual background to the emergence of CMS was the great outpouring of energy in Western Europe now called The Great Awakening. John Wesley, an Anglican priest and failed missionary, became a key player in the UK version of the story. Not all those influenced by the revival left the Anglican Church to become Methodists. One such was John Venn, the saintly rector of Clapham.

Members of the second and third generation following the revival saw many opportunities to consolidate its effects. Alongside the main Clapham agenda they sponsored Sunday Schools for evangelism and education, founded Bible Societies and much more.

The Reformation and the abolition of monasteries and religious orders left the Church of England without vehicles for mission, especially for outreach to the non-Christian world. This new membership society agreed to be loyal to the leadership of bishops and an Anglican pattern of liturgy, but not dominated by clergy and emphasised the role of laymen and women. Much of what we call the Anglican Communion today traces its origins to CMS work. However CMS today is not confined just to Anglicanism, both in terms of people it sends out in mission or ally agencies and projects around the world.

It was expected that Church of England clergy would quickly come forward to be missionaries. When this didn't materialise CMS turned towards mainland Europe and the earliest missionaries were German Lutherans. For over a century CMS enjoyed rich work relations with the Churches and seminaries of Western Europe. Sadly this was gradually eroded as the European superpowers vied with each other in the race for colonial expansion. Even so we can say the 20th-century quest for Christian unity began through the experience of mission.

Initially the Society had no designated offices. In 1813 it rented premises in Salisbury Square in the City of London and by the end of the 19th century a row of houses had become a large headquarters with a complex administration and numerous staff. In 1966 it moved to premises in Waterloo Road. In 2007 it moved to east Oxford to premises fitted to serving 21st century mission as part of a network of mission hubs all over the world.

The overseas mission work of CMS began in Sierra Leone in 1804 but spread rapidly to India, Canada, New Zealand and the area around the Mediterranean. Its main areas of work in Africa have been in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Congo, Rwanda and Sudan; in Asia, CMS's involvement has principally been in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, China and Japan; and in the Middle East, it has worked in Palestine, Jordan, Iran and Egypt.

The chaplain on the First Fleet to Australia was sent at the urging of Wilberforce. The second was sent by CMS and is regarded as the Apostle to New Zealand where CMS Britain worked directly (1809–1914). Other work included Canada (1822–1930), with smaller missions in Abyssinia (1830–1842), Asia Minor (Smyrna) (1830–1877), Greece (1830–1875), Madagascar (1863–1874), Malta (1815–1843), Mauritius (1856–1929), Seychelles (1871–1894), South Africa (1840–1843), Turkey (1819–1821), Turkish Arabia (Baghdad, 1883–1919 and Mosul, 1900–1919), and the West Indies (1819–1861).

It is unknown exactly when the York and District branch of the Society was formed, however it was certainly in operation in 1982. The York and District branch closed in 2017.

York Collegiate School
GB0192-667 · Collectivité · 19th century

York Collegiate School was a school for children in the city of York, in which members held shares. It's exact dates of operation are unknown, however it was certainly operating in the 1830s and 1840s.

Cooper; John (19th century)
GB0192-668 · Personne · 19th century

It is believed that John Cooper was a friend or relation of Samuel Holberry, Chartist.

GB0192-669 · Personne · 1876-1970

Edna Annie Crichton was Lord Mayor of York from 1941 to 1942, the first woman to hold that position.

Crichton was born in Gloucester on 8 May 1876. Her father, Joseph Marshall Sturge JP was a mechant, her mother was Anne (Annie) Burke, and her sister was Mary Sturge Gretton, historian. Crichton attended Sidcot School and worked on the Passmore Edwards settlement in Bloomsbury, London. In the early 1910s, she took on a role in York, serving on the national health insurance committee and on the board of guardians for the city.

In 1919, Crichton was elected to City of York Council, a position she would go on to hold for 23 years. As lord mayor, she led the city through the Baedeker raid in 1942. She spent her time visiting hospitals and many of the bombed houses.

Crichton was also the first female Alderman in York, a position she took on in 1942 and she held for 13 years, concerning herself with social interests such as health, housing and education, sitting on committees for each. She lead initiatives on the housing front, establishing a committee on housing and ensured construction of new houses and removal of dilapidated ones. In 1955, on her retirement, she became the second woman to receive the Freedom of the City of York.

She married David Sprunt Crichton on 22 August 1901 and that had two children together. After retirement in 1955, she continued to live in York until her death at Clifton on 5 March 1970.

Parliamentary Committee
GB0192-67 · Collectivité · 1869-1914

The earliest extant minute book dates from 1869 but it may have met earlier.

York Consumer Group
GB0192-670 · Collectivité · 20th century

York Consumer Group was a membership-based campaign group fighting for the rights of York consumers. The group published a regular newsletter, as well as annual general meeting papers, and contributed to various campaigns including Crime Prevention Month. The exact dates of operation of this group are unknown, however it was known to be operating in the 1960s and 1970s.

Cocoa Works Choral Society
GB0192-672 · Collectivité · 20th century

The Cocoa Works Choral Society was a group of amateur singers in the early 20th century, most likely connected to the Rowntrees Cocoa Works factory. The group held regular meetings and performances of large-scale works before the First World War. The exact dates of operation of the Society are currently unknown.

GB0192-673 · Collectivité · 1995-present

The Communication Workers Union (CWU) is the biggest union for the communications industry in the UK with 300,000 members. It was formed in January 1995 when the Union of Communication Workers joined forces with the National Communications Union. CWU members work in the Post Office, BT and other telephone companies, cable TV, Accenture HR Services, the Alliance and Leicester and Girobank. Members' expertise includes engineering, computing, clerical, mechanical, driving, retail, financial and manual skills.

The union provides first class collective and individual representation for all CWU members. It aims to achieve security of employment for all members, to offer individual membership services of the highest quality, to expand trade union membership throughout the communications industry. It also campaigns against all forms of discrimination and to further these objectives by promoting the influence of the union throughout the national and international community.

Dalby; George Dickinson (?-?)
GB0192-674 · Personne · ?-?

George Dickinson Dalby was a plumber in York, who was originally apprenticed to Frederick William Birch of Scarcroft Road, plumber, in 1916.

Clarke; David (1931-2014)
GB0192-675 · Personne · 1931-2014

David Clarke was a showman and theatrical all-rounder. For 50 years he devised, wrote and produced hundreds of plays, shows and full-scale pageants involving casts of hundreds on a monumental scale.

Clarke was born in London on 20 October 1931, before moving to Farncombe when he was two years old. He attended Godalming Grammar School, Goldsmiths Teacher Training College and Guildford School of Art.

In 1951 he acted in the Pageant of Farnham, and took part in the Guildford Coronation Pageant in 1952, before undertaking National Service in 1954-1955.

Clarke went on to teach art at Camberley Grammar School in Guildford, during which time he produced plays and operas, and founded the Cloister Players. In 1957 he was selected as production designer for the pageant of Guildford, which ran for ten days with a cast of thousands.

During the 1950s Clarke directed and produced two films, Mr Guy and The Girl with the Ponytail, both of which won awards in a national competion promoted by Movie Maker magazine and shown at London's Nationai Film Theatre. He also continued directing and producing plays for The Cloister Players and, in 1971, took the entire company to Cornwall's Minack Theatre to perform Romeo and Juliet and The Importance of Being Ernest. He also directeted A Mid-summer Night's Dream at Loseley Park, West Dean College in Sussex and at the Chichester Festival.

In 1968 David returned to pageants, devising, designing and producing The Pageant of England at Shalford Park. Around 1,000 people took part, all of them parading along Guildford High Street in full costume before the first performance. Some 100 technicians worked back-stage, 6,000 costumes were worn, 100 animals took part and it was watched by 40,000 people over two weeks. It was 10 years before David returned to Shalford Park with the Pageant of Monarchy.

In 1973 he was appointed artistic director of the Guildford Summer Festival, and in 1977 he organiscd Guildford Silver Jubilee Pageant. Princess Anne, the pageants patron, attended a Performance and David received the Queen's Jubilee Medal in recognition of his efforts.

Pageants followed in Farnham, in 1988, and at Corfe Castle, Dorset, in 1991, and then the Cranleigh Millennium Pageant in 2000 and the Chilworth Gunpowder Community Play at Tillingbourne Valley in the same year.

In 1980, and again in 1984, David was engaged to direct and produce the York Mystery Plays in York Minster.

He died in 2014.

Delittle Wood Letter Manufacturers
GB0192-676 · Collectivité · 1888-1998

The firm was founded as the Eboracum Letter Factory in 1888 by Robert Duncan Delittle and was originally on Railway Street (now George Hudson Street). It moved to purpose built premises in Vine Street in the early 20th century and at the height of its success employed 28 people in the manufacture of high quality large wooden printing type. It closed in 1997 and the building was pulled down. Delittle Court was built in its place.

The wood type manufacturer was known for their unique production of 'White-Letter' they named 'Eboracum' after the Roman name for York. Starting in 1940, DeLittle also cut wood type for Stephenson Blake, the leading type foundry in the United Kingdom.

English Move On
GB0192-678 · Collectivité · 1990s-2010s

English Move On is an adult educational course provided by York Learning. Tutors support adult students to improve their English and maths skills. Move On is one of four levels in the programme, covering the Level 1 and 2 Functional Skills qualifications for employment. It is for those adults looking to return to learning or to prepare for further/higher education, apprenticeships and GCSE.

GB0192-679 · Collectivité · 2014-present

Explore York Libraries and Archives Mutual Ltd was founded on 1 May 2014, when the Libraries and Archives Service of City of York Council spun-out as an independent entity. The organisation is an industrial and provident mutual, with staff and community members and is viewed as charitable by HMRC for tax purposes.

Explore runs the libraries across the City of York area on behalf of the council, as well as the Archives and Local History service, based at York Explore in the city centre. The service also runs a number of Reading Cafes in York and a mobile library service.

Explore was initially awarded a five year contract from City of York Council. In March 2019, it was awarded a further 15 year contract, ensuring that the company would provide services until 2034.

Member of Parliament
GB0192-68 · Collectivité · 1265-present

Candidates were taken from the county gentry and city elite and had to become freemen if they were not already. Often heavily involved in civic life, many also served as aldermen and mayors during their careers. The electorate consisted solely of the freemen until 1835.

In the medieval period the corporation typically selected its representatives members directly. They were often uncontested until elections became more politicised in the eighteenth century, when hundreds of new freemen were sometimes sworn in to swing a vote. From the 1830s-1900, each of the two seats were usually held by the opposing parties. In the twentieth century, the seat alternated between the Labour and Conservative parties regularly, and has been held by a Labour MP since 1992.

York traditionally returned two members as a borough constituency. In 1918 the number of MPs was reduced to one. In 2010 the "City of York" and "Vale of York" seats were replaced by "York Central" and "York Outer".

York Fanteakwa Community Link
GB0192-680 · Collectivité · c.1996-present

York Fanteakwa Community Link shares fellowship and mutual support between the Fanteakwa district of Eastern Region in Ghana and communities in York, UK.

Electric Theatres Ltd
GB0192-681 · Collectivité · 1911-1951

The Electric Theatre was York's first purpose-built cinema. It was later reopened as the Scala in 1951.

Friends of York City Archives
GB0192-682 · Collectivité · c.2000-2018

Friends of York City Archives was founded in around the year 2000 by volunteers with the City Archives service. The main aim was to support the archives service in general terms, and to keep the archives of the City of York in the city-centre, ideally in a new purpose-built archives service. This aim was achieved when the new service opened at York Explore Library on 5th January 2015, and as such, the Friends Group formally disbanded in 2018.

The group still meets occasionally for social purposes, and has run series of lectures, talks and workshops for members from its inception.

Eboracum Lodge
GB0192-683 · Collectivité · 1876-present

Eboracum Lodge was founded in 1876 as lodge number 1611 of the Freemasonry of England and Wales . It forms part of the Province of Yorkshire, North and East Riding. The lodge members continue to meet in York on the second Monday of the month.

York Family Service Unit
GB0192-684 · Collectivité · ?-2006

York Family Service Unit was part of the larger charity Family Service Units. It is not known when the York unit opened, but FSU had been operating throughout England and Scotland since 1948. The charity provided children's services, particuarly for a number of local authorities.

In April 2006 FSU collapsed due to financial issues, with services in England being taken over by the Family Welfare Association.

Fulford (Water) Parish Council
GB0192-685 · Collectivité · 1894-present

Fulford (Water) Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes.

Gee; Dustin (1942-1986)
GB0192-686 · Personne · 1942-1986

Gerald Harrison who performed under the name Dustin Gee, was an English impressionist and comedian, best known for his double act with fellow comic, Les Dennis.

Harrison was born in York in 1942, and left school at 15 to study art at college. He took a job as an artist, working mainly with stained glass and for a while worked on the stained glass windows at York Minster. He played in a rock band in the evenings called the Dare Devils and later 'Gerry B and the Hornets' before they altered the name to 'Gerry B and the Rockafellas'. When the group disbanded, Gee became a compere, then later a comedian.

In 1975, Gee met his future comedy partner, Les Dennis. After 20 years in showbusiness, Gee got his television break on Who Do You Do?, an ITV showcase. The show gave the opportunity for up and coming entertainers and impressionists to impersonate stars. Les Dennis also appeared on this show.

From April 1980 to July 1985, Gee was star guest on Russ Abbot's Madhouse. Les Dennis became one of the cast in 1982; it was during this year that Gee and Dennis formed a comedy double act. By this time, Gee was a cabaret star in the UK, selling out theatres and nightclubs somehow by word of mouth alone, despite being on weekly television. This was the show that included his most famous impression, as Coronation Street's Vera Duckworth in two-handers with Mavis Riley (played by Les Dennis).

In 1982, Gee appeared on ITV's talent show Success, alongside a sixteen-year-old Lisa Stansfield, who was making her TV debut.

On Saturday 7 April 1984, Gee and Dennis began their own TV comedy show, The Laughter Show (retitled, Les & Dustin's Laughter Show for the third series). The first episode of a third and final series aired on Saturday 28 December 1985. The second episode had already been planned to be postponed for a fortnight, but it was during this time that Gee died (on 3 January 1986). Soon after Gee's death, the BBC decided to cancel the rest of the series, but it was resumed upon the request of Gee's family. In the summer of 1986, the third series of the Laughter Show was repeated uninterrupted as a tribute to Gee.

Gee's funeral was held on 9 January 1986, at St Oswald's Church, at Fulford, York.

Holberry; Samuel (1814-1842)
GB0192-687 · Personne · 1814-1842

Samuel Holberry was a prominent Chartist activist.

Holberry was born in Gamston, Nottinghamshire, the youngest of nine children. In 1832 he joined the army, leaving in 1835 and moving to Sheffield, where began working as a distiller, and married Mary Cooper.

Together with other activists campaigning to extend the political rights given by the Reform Act 1832, he engaged in a number of peaceful protests. After a rebellion in Newport, Monmouthshire (now known as the Newport Rising) was put down in 1839, Samuel and a group of conspirators planned a Sheffield Rising.

The groups began to organise a militia, and supposedly 'provided themselves with arms, and fixed upon a plan for taking some, and firing other parts of the town'.

The plot was exposed by the landlord of a pub in Rotherham who had infiltrated the group. Leaders were identified, and both Samuel and Mary were arrested. In contrast to many members of the group, Samuel freely admitted that he had aimed to upset the Government and was willing to die for the Charter. He was convicted of conspiracy to riot and sedition and was sentenced to four years' imprisonment. He was placed in Northallerton House of Correction.

In gaol, Samuel developed consumption and died after being transferred to York Castle in 1842. He was buried in Sheffield General Cemetery, with 50,000 people attending his funeral.

Hardings Linen Drapers
GB0192-688 · Collectivité · 19th century-1974

Hardings Linen Drapers was founded in the late 19th century. By the early 20th century the business was trading from premises in High Ousegate, and later expanded to incorporate property on Coppergate as well (with entrances on either side of the building). The firm specialised in fabrics of all kinds, mainly for domestic use, and supplied on a wholesale and a retail basis. The company was eventually wound-up in 1974.

Heslington Parish Council
GB0192-689 · Collectivité · ?-Present

Heslington Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes.

Freemen (Unreformed)
GB0192-69 · Collectivité · pre-1155-1835

Not every resident of York was a freemen, and not all freemen were residents. Prior to 1835, the freemen formed the electorate, served as the civic administration, and returned Members of Parliament. The proportion of locally-born and incoming freeman varied over time, and did the cost and ease of access. Honorary freemen were also appointed, often royality or members of the nobility. The corporation strictly regulated the freedom, punishing unfree offenders and overseeing the guilds.

Hey; family
GB0192-690 · Famille · 19th century

The Hey family were resident in York in the 19th century. The family was intermarried with the Gray family of Grays solicitors, York, and associated papers can be found in the business collection (reference GDC) and the family collection (reference GFP).

Murray; Hugh (1923-2013)
GB0192-691 · Personne · 1923-2013

Hugh Murray was a pre-eminent British historian of the city of York. He hated history at school but turned it into a second career after retiring from British Rail.

Murray was born in Hull, and was the fifth generation of railwaymen in his family. His father Donald was fish stock superintendent for the London and North East Railway (LNER).

He was educated at Brecon, St. Peter's School, York, and Jesus College, Oxford, where he read physics. He then joined British Rail, where he became divisional signals and telecommunications engineer at Norwich and later Leeds, and ultimately moved to York to spend 14 years as signals engineer for the Eastern Railways region. He continued living in York after retiring in 1988.

Murray amassed his own library containing thousands of books and photographs and had an encyclopaedic knowledge of York. In 2004, Murray was presented with a British Association for Local History award for personal achievement for his services to York's local history. He delivered more than 1,500 lectures, a local history course that ran for 15 years, and a popular guided walks programme. He had an impressive list of publications including articles in many local history and other journals, and published several books.

Murray was a leading member of the Yorkshire Architectural and York Archaeological Society, being chairman from 1991 to 2002, and was editor of Yorkshire Historian from 1984 to 2000. He was on the Council of Friends of York Minster and the York Civic Trust, and in the Yorkshire Heraldry Society. He had a particular interest in York Cemetery, which opened in 1837 and was rescued from ruin by an organisation of Friends. As a trustee, treasurer and administrator for many years, he created a database of all the burials which is now an invaluable research tool for other historians as well as people with relatives buried there.

Murry died of mesothelioma in 2013, from asbestos dust and fibres in workshops while he was a British Rail graduate signals apprentice in the mid-1950s.

GB0192-692 · Collectivité · c.1900-present

The North of England Horticultural Society (NEHS) is a leading gardening charity set up more than 100 years ago to support and promote horticulture across the north.

The society organises and runs the twice yearly Harrogate Flower Shows.

Home Start York
GB0192-693 · Collectivité · ?-present

Home-Start is a local community network of trained volunteers and expert support helping families with young children through their challenging times. It is not known when the York branch actually started, however it was certainly before the 1990s.

GB0192-694 · Personne · 1952-present

Sir Hugh Nigel Edward Bayley (born 9 January 1952) is a British Labour Party politician who was Member of Parliament for York Central until 2015, having held the predecessor City of York seat from 1992 to the 2010 general election, when boundary changes took effect.

Bayley was born in Maidenhead, Berkshire and was educated at Haileybury and Imperial Service College, the University of Bristol, where he obtained a Politics BSc degree in 1974, before pursuing further studies at the University of York where he was awarded a BPhil degree in Southern African studies in 1976. After his studies in 1975 he became a District Officer and later a National Officer with NALGO until 1982.

Bayley was elected as a councillor in the London Borough of Camden in 1980 and became the general secretary of the International Broadcasting Trust in 1982. Bayley stepped down as a councillor and moved to York to take up a post as research officer in health economics at the University of York from 1987 to 1992. He was a lecturer in social policy at the university from 1986 until 1998.

Hugh Bayley was nominated as the Labour candidate for York at the 1987 general election but was defeated by just 147 votes by the Conservative Conal Gregory. After the election, Hugh Bayley became a Health Economics Research Fellow at the University of York, and became a member of the local health authority.

Conal Gregory and Hugh Bayley again fought it out at the 1992 general election in York and this time Bayley won by a comfortable margin. After his election he made his maiden speech on 7 May 1992 and joined the Health Select committee. The name of the York constituency was changed (though with unaltered boundaries) and Bayley won a majority of over 20,000 at the 1997 general election.

After the election, Bayley became the Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Health Frank Dobson, who lived near York. In 1998 he was appointed to Tony Blair's Government as the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in the Department of Social Security, responsible for Incapacity, Maternity, Disability benefits and Vaccine damage. He was deputed to bring the Welfare Reform and Pensions Bill through the Commons, which attracted much criticism from backbench Labour MPs over plans to means-test and restrict access to incapacity benefit. He was dropped from government after the 2001 general election.

Bayley has since served on the International Development Committee and pioneered the foundation of the Africa All Party Parliamentary Group, serving as chair for several years, now being its vice-chair. He was president of the NATO Parliamentary Assembly from November 2012 to 2014. He was also a chairman of the Public Bill Committee. The City of York constituency was abolished in 2010, with Bayley being elected in the 2010 general election to represent the successor constituency York Central.

At the outset of the 2010 parliament, Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow appointed Bayley as a temporary Deputy Speaker to serve for two weeks until the election of Deputy Speakers. Bayley accepted the appointment, but stated that he would serve only temporarily and would not run for a Deputy Speakership, as he preferred to be able to represent his constituents by speaking out on issues before the House.

On 5 December 2014, Bayley announced his intention to stand down as a Labour MP at the 2015 general election.

Bayley was knighted in the 2015 New Year Honours for his 'services to parliamentary engagement with NATO'.

Invalid Children's Aid Association
GB0192-696 · Collectivité · ?-present

Invalid Children's Aid Nationwide (I CAN) is a national registered charity (number 210031) for children with speech and language difficulties. The charity began as the Invalid Children's Aid Association (ICAA) on 26 November 1888, founded by Allen Dowdeswell Graham, a clergyman, to help poor children who were either seriously ill or handicapped. In 1888, he wrote 'Poverty is bad enough, God knows, but the poor handicapped exist in a living hell. It's up to us to do something about it'. Allen Graham organised a group of home visit volunteers who took food, bedding and medicine to children and their families, and helped arrange admissions into hospitals and convalescent homes, holidays, apprenticeships, and the loan of spinal carriages, wheel chairs and perambulators. Royal patronage began in 1891 and continued throughout the 20th century. The dates of operation of the York branch of the association are currently unknown.

As the Association grew, volunteers were gradually replaced by professional social workers and 'Homes of Recovery' were set up, where the treatment of children with tuberculosis and rheumatic heart disease was first pioneered. The first of these residential establishments was Holt Sanatorium opened in 1906 and Parkstone Home for boys was opened in 1909. In 1935, the ICAA helped publicise the need for immunisation against diptheria by holding a conference in London. The ICAA worked closely with the London County Council in providing Care Committee Secretaries to the Schools for Physically Handicapped Children, and acting as an agent for the tuberculosis 'TB Contact Scheme' from 1925. During 1939 to 1945, the Association was involved in the special arrangements for the evacuation of physically handicapped children to homes or selected foster homes.

The National Health Service Act 1948 introduced financial support for medical care and appliances required by the Association's social workers, enabling greater concentration on providing casework support to help alleviate the stress experienced by families with handicapped children. The Act also led to the transferral of the Association's Heart Hospital, which had been opened in 1926 to the Health Authorities and the gradual replacement of convalescence by short term holidays.

In the 1950s the Association's motto was 'To every child a chance' and aims were:

  1. To collect and put at the disposal of parents and others, all information with regard to the care of invalid and crippled children, and the facilities which exist for their treatment.

  2. To co-operate with doctors, hospital almoners and others by reporting on those aspects of the child's social background which are relevant to the understanding and treatment of the illness.

  3. To assist parents to carry out the doctor's advice with regard to treatment by :-

a) Arranging convalescence where necessary.

b) Helping them to understand, and where possible rectify, any adverse social conditions that may exist.

  1. To help in the re-establishment of the child in normal life.

  2. To visit the seriously invalided child.

With improvements in health care, the Association also began to concentrate on the educational problems arising from specific disabilities or chronic illness. In 1961 the Association organised an International Conference of Dyslexia and in 1964 the Word Blind Centre, Coram's Fields, was opened to study dyslexia and other reading difficulties. This led to the formation of the British Dyslexia Association.

By 1981 the ICAA was maintaining five residential schools for children with special educational needs. It also ran a central information service, which provided free advice, and hired publications and films, and centres run by social workers in London and Surrey offering support to families with handicapped children. Social work services were run partly through grant aid from local authorities, and included Keith Grove Centre, Hammersmith which was opened in 1967, and Grenfell House Social Work Centre in 1981.

In 1983 a Curriculum Development centre was opened for the research of teaching materials for children with speech and language disorders. The ICAA also expanded its area of work to include the Midlands and the North East with the opening of Carshalton Family Advice and Support Centre and regional offices.

In 1986 the ICAA was renamed as I CAN. In the late 1990s I CAN delivered a range of direct and partnership services to help children by pioneering work in special schools, nurseries and centres within local schools and by providing training and information for parents, teachers and therapists. In 1999 there were 25,000 children with severe and complex speech and language impairment, with only 14 specialised schools available in the country, I CAN managing three of these at Dawn House School, John Horniman School and Meath School. In these schools I CAN employed teachers, speech and language therapists, educational psychologists, care staff and social workers. In the financial year April 2000 to March 2001 the charity's gross income was £6,151,000, and expenditure was £7,035,000. I CAN has been involved in national projects such as 'Changing lives', an initiative launched in 1999, aimed at changing 'early years' provision to support 1,200 children in 2002.

Ideal Laundry
GB0192-697 · Collectivité · ?-?

Ideal Laundry was opened in St Martin's Lane, York, in the early part of the 20th century. It later moved to Trinity Lane. The company became incorporated in 1979. Whilst its exact dates of operation are not known, the company had certainly ceased trading by 1995, when the site was excavated by archaeologists prior to redevelopment.

Inland Waterways Association
GB0192-698 · Collectivité · ?-present

IWA is a membership charity that works to protect and restore the country's 6,500 miles of canals and rivers. It is unclear when the local branches in Yorkshire and the North Midlands were originally founded, however they were certainly operating by 1959.

Murphy; Joe (?-?)
GB0192-699 · Personne · ?-?

Joe Murphy was a local historian, lecturer and author. He lived in Osbaldwick.

GB0192-70 · Collectivité · 1396-present

York's bailiffs became sheriffs when the city became a county in 1396. The number was reduced to one in 1836.
Replaced bailiffs in 1396. Some legal functions transferred to Recorder in 1835.

Kirk; Maurice (?-?)
GB0192-700 · Personne · ?-?

Maurice Kirk was born in York in the 1920s and educated at Nunthorpe Boys School. He served during the Second World War, and subsequently worked for the University of Leeds. His father, Archibald Kirk, was Lord Mayor in 1963.

Knight; Charles Brunton (?-?)
GB0192-701 · Personne · ?-?

Charles Brunton Knight was a resident of York and local historian. He is most well known for his History of the City of York, originally published in 1944.

Leonard Cheshire, York Committee
GB0192-702 · Collectivité · ?-present

On 22 May 1948, former RAF pilot Leonard Cheshire took a dying man, who had nowhere else to go, into his home.

With no money, Leonard nursed the man himself in his home of Le Court in Hampshire. They became friends and this act of kindness prompted more people to go to Leonard for help. People were keen to share a home with others and support each other.

By the summer of 1949, his home had 24 residents with complex needs, illnesses and impairments. As awareness of Leonard's work spread he started to receive referrals.

New NHS hospitals struggled to cope with waiting lists of people needing urgent care. Disabled people were at the bottom of the list of NHS priorities at the time. People were often left to manage on their own, or to rely on others to help them get through each day.

As Le Court became established, people started to champion the need for similar homes in their communities. Interest in these services was not limited to the UK. International communities also sought these services. The establishment of Leonard Cheshire as a charity had begun.

By 1955, there were five homes in the UK. The first overseas project began outside Mumbai, India.

The 1960s saw rapid expansion. By 1970 there were over 50 services in the UK; five services in India and activities in 21 other countries around the world. It is currently unknown as to the exact date when the York Committee was established.

Leng; family
GB0192-703 · Famille · 18th century-20th century

The Leng family were residents of York, and are most well known for the creation of the 'Fulford Biscuit', and for their factory in York.

The 'Fulford Biscuit' was the creation of John Leng and his wife, Hannah Horsely, who lived in Wilberfoss. John, and his brother William, were brought up by their Uncle Thomas after their father died and their mother, Elizabeth Horsley, remarried. In 1800 Uncle Thomas died and left William £300. John, who was a 28 year old baker, was left the farm.

John and Hannah had 7 children, and his brother William and hist wife Ellis Rowntree had 10. It was during this time that the biscuit, which became so popular, was created. The biscuit was plain, yeast-raised, and saucersized, a development from the much plainer (and harder) ship's biscuit.

In the early 1800's, John sold out to William and moved to Fulford in search of a better education for the boys and better marriage prospects for his girls. Non-Freeman of the City were not allowed to open a shop in York, but could trade in Thursday market, where William sold his meat and where kin lived at 7 St. Sampson's Square.

77 Main Street, Fulford, became John Leng's family home with the bakery built into the side of the house. John set up his son 'Biscuit John' in St. Saviourgate, later moving to 2 Coppergate.
His son Charles was in Lambeth, distributing the biscuits. Brother William's sons Robert and George were apprentices when their father and two brothers died in 1831. Their mother, Ellis, moved to 69 Main Street, Fulford. Baker John died in 1849, and as Hannah was already dead, the Fulford Biscuit rights and recipe were left to daughters Mary and Maria Leng. Mary died in 1855 and Maria married.

Once qualified, Robert and George set up at 7 St Sampson's Square as competitors to Biscuit John, as York was now an open market. Later his only son John Philip, still at 2 Coppergate, sold the biscuits but later traded as a corn and flour merchant also buying many properties in York for his 10 children. Only George and his family continued making the biscuits at 77 Main Street. They were sold in Coppergate until 1902, when his widow, Jane Hunt, died.

Marjorie Leng, a granddaughter of John Philip, inherited the recipe, but not the method.

York Light Opera Company
GB0192-704 · Collectivité · ?-present

York Light Opera Company is a York-based musical theatre company who produce and perform several productions each year. It is unknown exactly when the company started, however it was certainly before 1955. With both an Adult Company for 16+ and Youth Company (10-18yrs) the organisation has members from all walks of life and ages, all with a love of musical theatre. The company regularly works with creative professionals and performing at York Theatre Royal. Some of our members even continue to become professionals in the industry.

The company brings both new productions and old classics to York. The company includes a large family built up of performers, volunteers and backstage helpers who are dedicated to having fun and working hard.

Milburn; William Clapham (?-?)
GB0192-705 · Personne · ?-?

William Clapham Milburn was a resident of York, who bought 18 Heworth Green on 14 February 1919. The house was later renumbered to 66. In his working life, he was a tailor at 51 Goodramgate (later renumbered 77).

Milburn; George Walker (1844-1941)
GB0192-706 · Personne · 1844-1941

George Walker Milburn, master woodcarver, stonemason and sculptor, was born in Goodramgate, York on 17 June 1844. He was the eighth of ten children of Lionel Altimont Milburn, a York tailor, and his wife, Elizabeth Clapham, of Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. Little is certain about George's childhood years but, in his early teens, he was apprenticed as a woodcarver to William Alfred Waddington, 'Pianoforte Manufacturer', who was based at 44 Stonegate, York. He attended York School of Art where he won several medals and awards. A head modelled by Milburn so impressed the sculptor Thomas Woolner RA that he offered the young student the opportunity to study with him, but Milburn felt obliged to decline as he had already commenced his apprenticeship. In 1865, having completed his woodcarving studies, George went to London to study stone-carving with Samuel J. Ruddock. While there he exhibited a medallion of the stained-glass artist Charles Hardgraves at the Royal Academy of Art.

George returned to York around 1872 and set up his own stone yard at 53 Gillygate. One of his first commissions was for the architect George Edmund Street on the massive project to restore the South Transept of York Minster. Street employed the young carver to execute a large portion of the decorative stonework on the interior and exterior during the eight years of restoration (1872-80). Street was sufficiently impressed by George's artistry that he took him to Corfe Castle in Dorset to work on St James' Church at Kingston, the church described as 'The Jewel of the Purbecks'. In addition to Street, George worked with many other leading architects of the Victorian and Edwardian era including Sir George Gilbert Scott, Charles Clement Hodges, Charles Hodgson Fowler, and Walter H. Brierley.

In 1885 George Milburn won the competition to execute a statue to commemorate George Leeman MP, three times Lord Mayor of York and a dominant figure in 19th-century York politics. Some felt that George had insufficient experience to execute the work and the controversy rumbled on in the York newspapers for many months. He took an enormous financial gamble, signing a potentially punitive contract with York City Council which would have ruined him had he failed. But the gamble paid off and York's first public statue established him as a sculptor in addition to his already established reputation as a stone- and woodcarver.

About this time, George moved his stone yard to St Leonard's Place at Bootham where it would remain for more than 50 years. He would go on to be awarded commissions for a statue of Queen Victoria for the Guildhall and a statue of William Etty which stands in Exhibition Square. While the Victoria statue also caused rumblings of discontent in the press, it was less to do with the choice of sculptor than with political squabbling over whether a statue was the correct form of memorial with which to honour the late Queen. On its completion, the statue received widespread praise. When unveiled by the Queen's daughter, Princess Henry of Battenberg, she broke with protocol and shook the sculptor's hand.

George left a large body of work, ecclesiastical and secular. He carved almost 50 memorial crosses and executed works for more than 150 churches. A small sample of his stone-carving includes the impressive Boer War Memorial Cross at Durham Cathedral; the Bede Cross at Roker, Sunderland; the statues for the elaborate Reredos at St Aidan's Church, Bamburgh; the Reredos at St Peter-at-Gowts, Lincoln; and multiple pulpits and fonts including St Barnabas' Church in York, St Aidan's in Hartlepool, and All Saints in Lincoln. His woodwork, equal to though less recognised than that of Robert Thompson, can be seen in the tracery panels for the magnificent double organ at Howden Minster, the organ screen for St Helen's Church at Escrick, the chancel screen at Melton Mowbray and the beautiful reredos in St Benet's Chapel at Ampleforth Abbey.

His mastery of both stone- and woodcarving can be seen at St Thomas' Parish Church at Stockton-on-Tees where he sculpted the large stone cartouche over the east window and the elaborate oak bench ends in the choir, and at St Andrew's Church at Bournemouth in Dorset where he carved the delightful oak figures for the choir, six stone statues and a beautiful alabaster reredos of the Annunciation. His works for private houses included Hawkstone Hall, Shropshire; the chapel at Hatfield College, Durham; Dunollie Hall, Scarborough; Carlton Towers, East Yorkshire; Gray's Court, York; the renowned Arts and Crafts-style house, Goddards, York; and the chapel at Castle Howard.

While his works were predominantly in Yorkshire and the North-East of England, his work can be found throughout the country, from Bournemouth in Dorset to Edinburgh where he carved the statue of John Hunter on the façade of the National Portrait Gallery. Although the Scottish sculptor James MacGillivray Pittendrigh has been credited with the latter, it was George Milburn who sculpted the statue from a miniature by Pittendrigh. Works can be found in almost 20 counties throughout the UK including Lincolnshire, Kent, Shropshire, Durham, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear, and Norfolk.

In York alone the list of his works includes the William Etty, Queen Victoria and George Leeman statues and works for York Minster, York Art Gallery, York Explore Library, St Barnabas' Church, St Chad's at Knavesmire; St Olave's Church, St Wilfrid's Church, Holy Trinity Church, All Saints Pavement, Barclays Bank, Beckett's Bank, Jacob's Well in Micklegate, St Sampson's Church, St Andrew's Church at Bishopthorpe, Fulford Church and many others. He found time in his busy career to make a positive contribution to some of York's many societies; he was a member of the York Philosophical Society, an active supporter of the York School of Art and a frequent lecturer.

In his private life, he was a practising Catholic – although he seems to have had a relaxed attitude about the strict adherence to church rules; his first marriage, to Ellen Ward, was at St Wilfrid's Church; his second, to Isabella Fletcher, took place at St Olave's Church in Marygate. Like many Victorians, he suffered a series of family tragedies; his first child, Lionel, died at the age of one; his first wife, Ellen, died of TB in 1885 at the age of 28, shortly after giving birth to their fourth child, Norah; Norah herself died one year later. In all, of five children in his two marriages, only two survived into adulthood. His second marriage, to Isabella Fletcher, in 1888, lasted until her death in 1924. With his son, Wilfrid Joseph Milburn, the two worked as G.W. Milburn & Son from the stone yard at St Leonard's Place.

George had an exceptionally long career, working well into his eighties and living through enormous changes in his native city. Born in the seventh year of Victoria's reign, when Sir Robert Peel was Prime Minster and York a city with a population of barely 40,000, his work straddled two centuries and honoured the dead of two wars: the Boer War and the First World War. During his lifetime the population of York expanded to more than 123,000 inhabitants. Few others can claim to have lived and worked continuously in one city through a period of such enormous change. He died in York City Hospital, Huntington Road on 3 September 1941.

His importance to York can be gauged by the judgement of his fellow artists and peers. John Ward Knowles, the renowned York stained-glass artist, was of the opinion that for many years stone-carving in York had been 'confined to the works of ornamental sculpture' until 'the higher branch of the art was again resuscitated by George Milburn'. Street reportedly called him 'the best Gothic sculptor in the country' and Knowles felt that, in stone-carving, George 'stood pre-eminently in front of his confrères'.

More than 270 of George Milburn's works survive but this master craftsman has not received the recognition that he deserves, and most of his extant works remain uncredited, overshadowed by others, such as Robert Beall of Newcastle or Thompson of Kilburn, or even incorrectly ascribed to others.

The Mount School, York
GB0192-707 · Collectivité · 1785-present

The Mount School's heritage dates back to 1785, when prominent Quakers, Esther and William Tuke wished to provide an education for the daughters of Quakers. William's determination and Esther's selflessness made them the founding parents of York Friends' Girls' School. They were, as we remain today, passionate about providing an education for girls. The Mount has come a long way since the Tuke's vision in 1785. Our history and heritage shaped the education and provision we offer today.

The York Friends' Girls' School opened in 1785. Fees were 14 guineas a year for 'instruction, board and washing.' In 1812, due to economic difficulties caused by the Napoleonic War the School closed. In 1830, Samuel Tuke, grandson of William and Esther, along with William Alexander, Thomas Blackhouse and Joseph Rowntree (the founding father of the Rowntree dynasty in York) turned their attentions to reopening the School.

In 1831, at Castlegate House under the superintendent of Hannah Brady the school reopened. Subjects studied included Arithmetic, Latin and English Grammar. In 1836, funding became available to train young women to teach. Girls who trained at the School left equipped with the ability to earn a living and become independent women. In 1856, led by Rachel Tregelles, the school moved to a large purpose built house with vast gardens, in an area known as The Mount. Thus, The Mount School was created and remains on the same site today. In 1866, Lydia Rous became Superintendent, she was passionate about girls' education, wanting women to be able to receive the same education as men.

In 1878, Mount girls began to sit examinations that made them eligible for University. Susannah Wells became the first Mount girl to gain a place at university. She later returned as the first woman graduate on The Mount staff. In 1879, Superintendent Susan Scott aimed to modernise the school. Music and games were introduced to the curriculum. In 1876, tennis was first played at the school and in 1879 the first choir was started. Today music, performance and sports are such a staple of the School's curriculum and activities it is hard to imagine a time without them.

In 1890, Lucy Harrison became Superintendent. She raised the academic profile of the school, one that is still revered today. Teaching improved as only qualified university graduates were appointed to teach. In science girls began to undertake their own experiments. The Debating Society was founded and the question of women's rights was never far from the agenda. Lucy Harrison even introduced her lifelong hobby of woodwork to The Mount. In a time of needlecraft, woodwork was deemed an unusual lesson for young women. With women's rights, still a much-discussed topic at the School and in modern-day culture, it is evident Lucy Harrison was ahead of her times.

In 1902, Winifred Sturge took charge of the School for the next 24 years. The school premises continued to expand with the building of a new wing and the opening of the library in 1903. In the early 1900s The Mount girls played their part in helping to supply the needs of the less privileged young people. They went out to teach games in local schools and taught in Quaker Sunday schools. This sense of thoughtfulness remains a trait of the pupils today, who regularly raise money and volunteer for charities.

On 4 August 1914 Britain went to war. Quaker families were divided about whether it was right to be a conscientious objector or not. In 1914, Mount girls helped prepare accommodation for Belgian refugees and knitted socks and scarves for soldiers. In 1916, once the Zeppelin raids began the school was regularly thrown into darkness during blackouts – a cause of excitement and terror. The post-war years saw a steady increase in numbers at The Mount and a growth of non-Quakers attending the school. In 1931, the school marked its centenary, opening a new assembly hall. The role of professional women had been changed dramatically by the war and growing numbers of Mount girls would regularly train for careers in medicine and social work, professions many Mount girls continue to aspire to today.

When war broke again, it was decided to evacuate the school to a large house at Cober Hill near Scarborough. The girls arrived on 28 September 1939 and enjoyed two terms at Cober Hill. The war inevitably had an impact on the school, the girls were not sheltered from the daily news of fighting and many wanted to help. They knitted blankets and made toys for refugees and older girls volunteered as Land Girls. In spite of the war the school continued to look ahead and in 1942 in order to improve science lessons for girls a new laboratory was created.

In the post war decade, national events were celebrated and in 1952 Mount girls took part in the York Festival, a tradition that still stands today. In 1954, the science block was built aiming to address the national shortage of female scientists. This philosophy remains today with a thriving STEM programme. The 1950s and the changing world allowed the School to take on a global outlook. Girls from Europe, America, Africa and Asia joined the school. Mount Girls travelled to Grenoble and Geneva to participate in meetings of the United Nations youth events. Today students from many different countries attend the School and school trips regularly take place across the globe.

At The Mount School, political awareness was nothing new, but in the 1960s and 1970s new ways of participation were becoming available. The Mount School branch of Amnesty International was founded by Hilary Wainwright. Careers teaching became of great importance for girls. The Mount provided more structured advice and Old Scholars were invited to speak at careers evenings. Medicine, law and dentistry, were all popular and for the first time a girl from The Mount took up an apprenticeship in engineering. Careers advice remains a prominent department providing regular guidance and running careers fairs.

The school continued to develop over the years. In 1965, the swimming pool was opened alongside a new gymnasium. The old gymnasium was transformed into the art wing. The Music wing was also constructed to facilitate the teaching of music and the staging of concerts. As technology advanced, computers were introduced in 1981. In 1983 computer studies appeared on the curriculum. In 1988, a new science area was built significantly enlarging the provision for science and mathematics. At the same time a new art and design area was opened, and design and technology appeared on the curriculum. Art, design, photography, pottery, resistant materials and computer-aided design and technology all had purpose built facilities.

In 1991, The Mount Junior School opened – then named Tregelles School. With all the facilities of The Mount at its disposal Tregelles provided a fantastic setting for Independent Junior school. Modern languages were introduced to the curriculum and Senior School staff assisted with music, sport and languages. The School soon grew and in 1994 demand led to a nursery class opening. In 1995, the School expanded adding four new classrooms. The Junior School continues to thrive today welcoming girls aged 2-11 from York and beyond.

During the 1990s pupils were encouraged to achieve and achieve they did! The School produced winners of many national competitions including: The Liverpool University Mathematics Challenge, Leeds Latin Reading Competition, The German Jugendbruck Competition and The Wordsworth Trust's poetry competition. All these achievements in such a variety of fields were a testimony to the pride and faith that teaching staff had in their pupils.

Expansion of the school continued into the new millennium. The sports hall was opened in 2001 and in 2007, the College Study Centre opened. The expansion to the school was more than just physical and the curriculum and activities available to the pupils continues to grow. In 2011, the Global Thinking curriculum was devised by Nobel Peace Laureates and the international PeaceJam Foundation was introduced at College. Advances in technology were at the forefront of The Mount education and iPads have become a staple in the classroom for Junior and Senior School pupils.

Osbaldwick Parish Council
GB0192-709 · Collectivité · ?-present

Osbaldwick Parish Council was officially created at some point after the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes. Osbaldwick became part of the York Unitary Authority in 1996.

Freemen (Reformed)
GB0192-71 · Collectivité · 1835-present

In 1835 the status of freemen in York as the sole electorate, master craftsmen, traders and officials was ended as part of municipal reform. In 1953 a Gild of freemen was setup to "enhance the good reputation of the City of York" and "maintain and develop the rights and privileges of the Admitted Citizens and Freemen of York".
See also Strays Committee.

York Ornithological Club
GB0192-710 · Collectivité · 1965-present

York Ornithological Club was established in 1965 by people who attended an adult education class. It's original aim was for those members to continue with what they had learned. Over the years the club has developed, and how has at least 70 members.

The club publishes an annual list of bird records, runs trips for members and has a regular series of meetings and talks.

Fettes; George (?-?); Mr
GB0192-711 · Personne · ?-?

Fettes was a pawnbroker, operating from premises in Lady Peckitt's Yard, York. His exact dates of operation are not currently known, however he was certainly working in the late 1770s.

Persimmon plc
GB0192-712 · Collectivité · 1972-present

Persimmon was founded by Duncan Davidson in 1972. After leaving George Wimpey, Davidson had formed Ryedale Homes in 1965, selling it to Comben Homes in 1972 for £600,000. Davidson restarted development again in the Yorkshire area; Persimmon began to expand regionally with the formation of an Anglian division in 1976 followed by operations in the Midlands and the south-west. In 1984, Persimmon bought Tony Fawcett's Sketchmead company; Fawcett had been a director of Ryedale and he became deputy managing director at Persimmon. The enlarged company was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1985, by which time the Company was building around 1,000 houses a year.

Steady regional expansion took volumes up to 2,000 by 1988 with a target of 4,000 following the housing recession. Tony Fawcett had died in 1990 and in 1993 John White was appointed as chief executive with Davidson remaining as an executive chairman. In 1995, Persimmon made the first of a series of major acquisitions. Ideal Homes, once the largest housebuilder in the country and then part of Trafalgar House was bought for £176m giving the Group a much stronger presence in the south-east. This was followed by the purchase of the Scottish housing business of John Laing plc and Tilbury Douglas Homes.

In 2001, Persimmon acquired Beazer Homes UK, for £612m, taking output to over 12,000 a year. The deal came about after Beazer and Bryant announced a 'merger of equals' to create a new house builder called Domus. However, Taylor Woodrow stepped in with a £556 million bid for Bryant, and Persimmon bought Beazer, a company named after its founder Brian Beazer, and originally started in Bath. The acquisition of Beazer brought with it Charles Church, a business founded by Charles and Susanna Church in 1965.

In January 2006 Persimmon acquired Westbury, another listed UK house builder, for a total consideration of £643 million.

York Philatelic Society
GB0192-713 · Collectivité · 1948-present

The York Philatelic Society was founded in 1948, as an organisation for individuals interested in collecting or studying postage stamps, postal history, items of philatelic interest, historical philatelic items, postcards and labels used through the post.

The Society meets on the second Tuesday of each calendar month, and is associated with The Yorkshire Philatelic Association (YPA) and the Association of British Philatelic Societies (ABPS).

Patefield; William (18th century)
GB0192-714 · Personne · 18th century

William Patefield was a draper and haberdasher in York. His dates of birth and death are currently known, however he was working in York in the late 1780s and 1790s.

York Photographic Society
GB0192-715 · Collectivité · 1887-present

York Photographic Society (YPS), which was formed in 1887. It is the oldest camera club in York and was one of the very first camera clubs and photographic societies in Britain. After an enforced hiatus, the Society reformed in 1932.

The club is a friendly group with a growing membership covering all ages, abilities and photographic genres. It meets on Wednesday evenings at the Poppleton Centre on the outskirts of York with our season running from September to May.

Poppleton Road Memorial Hall
GB0192-716 · Collectivité · 1946-present

At the end of the Second World War, Chief ARP Warden AIf Hudson, a boot and shoe repairer of 99 Poppleton Road, conceived the idea of a permanent memorial to the area's war casualties. Not just a plaque or a monument, but a living testament to the fortitude of local residents. He called a public meeting at Poppleton Road school, which resolved to build a Community Hall for social and recreational activity.

Building materials were short, with priority being given to repairing damaged houses. But with some perseverance, AIf and his helpers secured the rental of a plot of land just off Poppleton Road, overlooking the railway. A former barrack hut was purchased from RAF Everingham, a village bomber base west of York, dismantled on site and transported flat pack style to Poppleton Road.

Volunteers, many of them carriageworks employees gave their varied skills to rebuild the hut, and fit it out. Permission was obtained to demolish the old air raid shelter on Poppleton Road. All its bricks were hand cleaned and reused to form the footings of the Hall, which was finally opened on Sunday November 24th 1946. At centre stage was a mahogany plaque, which bore in gold leaf, the names of the deceased in whose memory the Hall had been founded. A Committee of residents continued to manage the Hall, as they still do today.

By the mid 1980s, it was evident that the old wooden building, by then expanded, was at the end of its life. A six year fund-raising campaign followed, with all the Hall users contributing in various ways to collect over £40,000 towards the estimated £125,000 cost. The balance was secured with grants from Local Authorities, businesses and grant-making trusts. Charitable status was obtained, plus Planning Consent for the new building. The freehold of the still-rented site was bought on very favourable terms. The Committee rented temporary premises at nearby Poppleton Road school for eighteen months, and in that time, the old Hall was demolished, and the new building began to take shape.

The New Hall opening ceremony was held in April 1990, as a re-enactment of the original 1946 proceedings. Committee President Roy Hudson, nephew of the Hall's late founder AIf Hudson, played the central role. The then Lord Mayor of York, ClIr. Jack Archer and his wife Ena, the Lady Mayoress were in attendance. Jack was appropriately the Hall Committee's Vice President and a retired Carriageworks employee.

The Memorial Plaque was beautifully restored by courtesy of York Civic Trust whose Chairman, Dr. John Shannon, unveiled it as part of the proceedings.The new Hall was occupied from the following month, and continues to provide a home for the regular meetings of a variety of local groups. It also hosts one-off private bookings for meetings, parties and similar events. The Hall today is equipped with AV facilities, wifi and broadband.

In 2007, former Luftwaffe crew member 86 year old Willi Schludecker came to York on the latest of a series of reparation visits. He had been part of the bomber raid on York. Together with his UK hosts, Willi visited the Hall. He was given a copy of the Hall's history book, published in 1990, and gave a donation to the Hall in return.

York Priory Ladies Choir
GB0192-717 · Collectivité · ?-present

The exact foundation date of the York Old Priory Choir is currently unknown, however it was certainly in operation by 1906. The choir was a choral society, performing concerts for the local York public. Whilst the choir was originally mixed-gender, by the 1980s the number of men attending had begun to tail off, and the decision was taken to turn it into a female-only choir. From this point on it was referred to as the York Priory Ladies Choir.

York Hospital Radio
GB0192-718 · Collectivité · ?-present

York Hospital Radio is a volunteer run radio station serving the staff and patients at York Hospital. It's exact foundation date is currently unknown, however it was certainly in operation by 1975. It is a registered charity and relies solely on donations for it's operation.

Yorkshire Association of Change Ringers
GB0192-720 · Collectivité · 1875-present

Following a series of quarterly ringing meetings held in the early 1870's a meeting was held in Bradford on 2nd January 1875. After some ringing, those present adjourned to the Church Steps Inn for a business meeting and it was agreed to form a Yorkshire Society to promote ringing. Jasper Snowdon was unanimously elected to the chair for that meeting which formulated a constitution and a set of rules. These were presented to a large meeting held at Birstall on 30th October 1875, as a result of which the Yorkshire Association came into being.

In recognition of the leading part played by Snowdon, he was elected President and remained in this position until his death in 1885.

The Society continues to this day, and is now one of the largest ringing associations in the United Kingdom.

Multiple Sclerosis Society, York branch
GB0192-721 · Collectivité · 1953-present

In 1953, founders Richard and Mary Cave were frustrated at the lack of treatments and support available for Mary's MS. So they decided to do something about it. They set up their first meeting in West London, a small number of people came and the MS Society was born. Today, the Society has around 30,000 members and groups in every part of the UK. Richard and Mary's work has inspired thousands of volunteers, supporters and staff members to make a difference to the lives people affected by MS.

The York branch was started in the same year as the Multiple Sclerosis Society, and it is believed that it continues to this day.

Sinclair; Alison (?-present)
GB0192-722 · Personne · ?-present

Alison Sinclair is a retired archaeologist and architectural historian, who served as chair of the Conservation Area Advisory Panel for many years. She is a committed conservationist, particularly as regards York's built heritage.

Holmes; Sydney John (?-?)
GB0192-723 · Personne · ?-?

Sydney John Holmes was born and raised in Acomb near York. He fought in the First World War, incuding in Ypres in 1917-1918.

Strensall Local History Group
GB0192-724 · Collectivité · ?-present

Strensall Local History Group is an informal group of people interested in learning about all aspects of the history of Strensall, York and the surrounding area. The Group holds regular monthly meetings to listen to speakers on wide-ranging subjects, and in summer there are usually two outings/outside events.

A regular newsletter keeps members in touch with developments.

Telephone Committee
GB0192-725 · Collectivité · 1898-1899

Met occasionally to negotiate with the National Telephone Company Ltd regarding costs, installing telegraph poles and cables.

Sheldon Memorial Trust
GB0192-726 · Collectivité · c.1951-present

The Sheldon Memorial Trust was established to perpetuate the memory of Oliver Sheldon. Sheldon died on 7 August 1951 at the age of 57.

A Director of Rowntree and Company Limited, he was a scholar and a man of wide culture who made an outstanding contribution to art and culture of the north. He was founder and first Chairman of York Georgian Society, co-founder and first Secretary of York Civic Trust, heavily involved in the restoration of York's Assembly Rooms, and a prime mover in the establishment of the Borthwick Institute in St Anthony's Hall and the Summer Schools which became the foundations of the University of York.

The Sheldon Memorial Trust today furthers its founding principles by applying funds in the following areas:

  • The award of essay prizes on subjects within the Charity's objectives.
  • The provision of financial assistance by way of grants or loans for publications or projects.
  • ​A competition rewarding schools to explore their prehistoric local landscape.
    ​- Organising lectures celebrating York's history and heritage.

The Sheldon Memorial Trust is a registered charity Number 529733.

York St John's University
GB0192-727 · Collectivité · 1841-present

The university descends from two Anglican teacher training colleges, which were founded in York in 1841 (for men) and 1846 (for women). In 1862, the women's college relocated to Ripon. Over the next century, the colleges gradually diversified their education programmes. The colleges, St John's College and Ripon College, merged in 1974 to form the 'College of Ripon and York St John'.

In 1990 the combined institution formally became a college of the University of Leeds; this arrangement allowed it to award degrees in the name of the latter, while remaining in practice largely autonomous. Between 1999 and 2001, all activities were transferred to York and the college received the name 'York St John College'.

In February 2006, the College was granted the right to award degrees in its own name and the right to call itself a University College. On 10 July 2006 the Privy Council approved a request from the college to become a full-fledged University; the name became 'York St John University' on 1 October 2006, and the first Chancellor (installed at a ceremony in York Minster on 7 March 2007) was the Archbishop of York John Sentamu.

Stuart; Vivian (1914-1986)
GB0192-728 · Personne · 1914-1986

Violet Vivian Finlay was born in Berkshire, England on 2 January 1914. She was the daughter of Alice Kathleen (née Norton) and Sir Campbell Kirkman Finlay, the owner and director of Burmah Oil Company Ltd., whose Scottish family also owned James Finlay and Company Ltd. The majority of her childhood and youth was spent in Rangoon, Burma (now also known as Myanmar), where her father worked.

Finlay married four times and bore five children, Gillian Rushton (née Porch), Kim Santow, Jennifer Gooch (née Stuart), and twins Vary and Valerie Stuart.

Following the dissolution of her first marriage, she studied for a time Law in London in the mid 1930s, before decided studied Medicine at the University of London. Later she spent time in Hungary in the capacity of private tutor in English, while she obtained a pathologist qualification at the University of Budapest in 1938. In 1939, she emigrated to Australia with her second husband, a Hungarian Doctor Geza Santow with whom she worked. In 1942, she obtained a diploma in industrial chemistry and laboratory technique at Technical Institute of Newcastle. Having earned an ambulance driver's certificate, she joined the Australian Forces at the Women's Auxiliary Service during World War II. She was attached to the IVth Army, and raised to the rank of sergeant, she was posted to British XIV Army in Rangoon, Burma in October 1945, and was then transferred to Sumatra in December. After the war she returned to England.

She published her first novels in 1953. She signed her romantic fiction as Vivian Stuart, one of her married names, and under the pen names of Alex Stuart, Barbara Allen, Fiona Finlay and Robyn Stuart, while for her military sagas, 'Alexander Sheridan Saga' and 'Phillip Hazard Saga' she used the name V.A. Stuart, and William Stuart Long was her pen name for the popular historical series: 'Australians', based on her research at The Mitchell Library Sydney; The National Maritime Museum; British Public Records Office and the New York Public Library.

Many of her romance novels were protagonized by doctors or nurses, and set in Asia, Australia or other places she had visited. Her novel, 'Gay Cavalier' (1955 as Alex Stuart) caused trouble between Vivian and her Mills & Boon editors. She featured a secondary story line featuring a Catholic male and Protestant female who chose to marry. This so-called 'mixed marriage' outraged many people in the United Kingdom at the time.

On 24 October 1958, she married her fourth and last husband, Cyril William Mann, an investment banker.

In 1960, she was a founder of the Romantic Novelists' Association, along with Denise Robins, Barbara Cartland, and others; she was elected the first Chairman. In 1970, she became the first woman to chair Swanwick writers' summer school.

Violet Vivian Mann died in 1986 in York, at age 72. She continued writing until her death.

Wilkinson; Tate (1739-1803)
GB0192-729 · Personne · 1739-1803

Tate Wilkinson was born in 1739. The son of a clergyman, he was educated at Harrow.

His first attempts at acting were badly received, and it was to his wonderful gift of mimicry that he owed his success. His imitations, however, naturally gave offence to the important actors and managers whose peculiarities he hit off to the life. Garrick, Peg Woffington, Samuel Foote and Sheridan, after being delighted with the imitations of the others, were among the most angry when it came to their turn, and threatened never to forgive him. Garrick never did.

As an actor, Wilkinson was most successful in Foote's plays, but his list of parts was a long one. In Shakespearian characters he was very popular in the provinces. In 1766 he became a partner of Joseph Baker in the management of several Yorkshire theatres, and married about 1768. He became sole manager after his partner's death in 1770 of a number of theatres on what was then called the Yorkshire Circuit, and he was both liberal and successful. The Theatre, Leeds, built to his order in 1771, was part of the circuit. In 1769 he took over York Theatre Royal, where he also had living quarters.

He died in 1803.

Lord Mayor of York
GB0192-73 · Collectivité · 1212-present

The 1212 charter included the right to select a mayor and pay the city's fee farm directly. The Lord Mayor serves a one year term at a time, but may be Mayor more than once. The Lord Mayor was traditionally drawn from the pool of aldermen, and returned to being an aldermen afterwards. The Lord Mayor is supported by the Lady Mayoress who may be a spouse or other female relative. The first female Lord Mayor of York was Edna Crichton in 1941-1942.
See also Mayor and Commonality of the City of York. Charitable functions chiefly transferred to York Charity Trustees in 1837, though some individual cases remained.

Cooper; T P (?-?)
GB0192-730 · Personne · ?-?

T P Cooper was a local historian, specialising in the history of York, in the late nineteenth and early 20th centuries.

Treasurer's House, York
GB0192-731 · Collectivité · 16th century-present

The first Treasurer for York Minster was appointed in 1091 when the office was established by Archbishop of York Thomas of Bayeux, but all that remains of his original house is an external wall which forms part of Grays Court and sections of 12th-century masonry in the present Treasurer's House for which it is uncertain whether they are in-situ or have been reused. As the controller of the finances of the Minster the Treasurer required a grand residence to be able to entertain important guests.

The residence served in this capacity until 1547, when the Reformation of the English Church brought the job of Treasurer to an end. The last Treasurer surrendered the house to the crown on 26 May and it was granted to Protector Somerset by whom it was sold to Archbishop Robert Holgate. Thomas Young, Archbishop between 1561 and 1568, and his descendants are responsible for the structure of house as it is today. In the early 17th century the Young family added the symmetrical front and almost entirely rebuilt the house. In 1617, the Treasurer's House played host to royalty when Sir George Young entertained King James I. The house then passed through a number of private owners including Lord Fairfax and over time was sub-divided into separate tenements.

The house was restored to its present state by Frank Green, a wealthy local industrialist, who between 1897 and 1898 bought each part of the house. He appointed Temple Moore to restore the house and remove numerous earlier additions. This work was mostly completed by 1900 and when Frank Green retired and moved away from York in 1930 the house and its contents were given to the National Trust.

The house was built directly over one of the main Roman roads leading out of Roman York to the North. During major structural changes, carried out by Green, four Roman column bases were uncovered, one of which remains in-situ in the cellar and one of which was used as a base for a modern set of columns in the main hall.

Today, the National Trust continues to manage the hall and gardens, and opens the building to the public as a visitor attraction.

Wigginton Parish Council
GB0192-732 · Collectivité · 1894-present

Wigginton Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes.

Walker; John (?-?); Mr
GB0192-733 · Personne · ?-?

John Walker was a railwayman, and one-time resident of 20 Portland Street, York. It is believed that he may have also fought in the First World War.

Wragg; Richard Brian (?-?)
GB0192-734 · Personne · ?-?

Brian Wragg was a resident of York, who completed his PhD, entitled 'The Life and Works of John Carr of York: Palladian Architect'. His PhD was awarded by the University of Sheffield.

Wyvill; Christopher (1740-1822)
GB0192-735 · Personne · 1740-1822

Christopher Wyvill was born in Edinburgh in 1740, the son of Edward Wyvill (died 1791), supervisor of excise there, by Christian Catherine, daughter of William Clifton of Edinburgh. Sir Christopher Wyvill, 3rd Baronet, of Constable Burton, was his great-great-grandfather.

Christopher Wyvill matriculated at Queens' College, Cambridge in 1756, obtaining an honorary degree of LL.B. in 1764. In 1774 he came in for the large landed estates of the family in Yorkshire and elsewhere, and the mansion at Constable Burton, the building of which he completed from his cousin, Sir Marmaduke's, designs. He had some years previously taken orders and been presented through his cousin's influence to the rectory of Black Notley in Essex, which he continued to hold and administer by means of a curate, down to 22 September 1806. Debarred from entering the House of Commons, Wyvill began to take a prominent part in county politics.

In 1779 Wyvill was appointed secretary of the Yorkshire Association, which had for its main objects to shorten the duration of parliaments, and to equalise the representation. He shortly became chairman of the association.

Wyvill drew up a circular letter enunciating its political sentiments, and took a leading part in drawing up the Yorkshire petition presented to parliament on 8 February 1780. A number of moderate Whigs, including Horace Walpole, regarded Wyvill's manifesto as chimerical, Walpole writing that it was full of 'obscurity, bombast, and futility'. Sir Cecil Wray wrote in a similar vein, and Rockingham wanted to know if the Association had ever considered the practicability of the annual parliaments which they recommended. Wyvill's contention was that the long American war was due primarily, not to the wish of the people, but to the votes of the members of the close boroughs. The Association had the sympathy of politicians including Pitt and Charles James Fox.

A committee under Wyvill was appointed to continue the pressure by correspondence, and the example of Yorkshire was followed by other counties, 25 in all. In the period 1779 to 1781, when there was a delegate conference, the movement gained a broad base. Supporters included John Baynes, Sir Robert Bernard, Newcome Cappe, John Fountayne, Sir James Grant, Thomas Brand Hollis, Sir James Innes-Ker, John Lee, Gamaliel Lloyd, George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester, John Smyth, Charles Stanhope, and William Johnson Temple.

With the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, however, and the fall of Lord North, the Association disintegrated. Wyvill's supporters dwindled, to a small group including Sir George Savile, and Sir Charles Turner, who spoke of the House of Commons as resembling a parcel of thieves that had stolen an estate and were afraid of letting any person look into their title-deeds for fear of losing it.

Wyvill strongly disapproved of the subsequent war with France, to which he attributed industrial distress in Yorkshire, and this completed his alienation from Pitt. In 1793 Wyvill published in pamphlet form correspondence that had passed between them. Some supplementary letters appeared at Newcastle in a further brochure, and both had a large sale. Wyvill attached himself to the extreme Whig opposition, and he defended in a short pamphlet (early 1799) the secession of 1798. After Fox's death he gave his support to Samuel Whitbread and the peace-at-any-price party.

Wyvill returned in later life to his early enthusiasm in the cause of universal toleration; in particular he published on Catholic emancipation. He died at his seat, Burton Hall, near Bedale in the North Riding, on 8 March 1822, at the age of 82, and was buried at Spennithorne.

GB0192-736 · Collectivité · 1842-present

The Yorkshire Archaeological Society was founded 'to promote the study of ecclesiastical architecture, antiquities, and design, the restoration of mutilated remains, and of churches which may have been desecrated, within the county of York: and the improvement, as far as may be within its province, of the character of ecclesiastical edifices to be erected in the future'. The first meeting of the Society, to be called the Yorkshire Architectural Society, was held in York on 7 October 1842. Its membership consisted of patrons, The Archbishop of York and the Bishop of Ripon; Presidents, the Lords Lieutenants of the three Ridings: Vice-Presidents, local nobility, knights and Members of Parliament; and ordinary members, clergymen and lay members of the Church of England.

An early pioneer in its chosen field (The Oxford Architectural Society and the Cambridge Camden Society had been formed only two years earlier), the society met twice a year for the reading of papers and the dispatch of ordinary business. This included the consideration of grants from its funds for the restoration of churches. An early indication of its reputation was a request from the Vicar of Wakefield for the Society to undertake the complete restoration of the Chantry Chapel of the Blessed Virgin on the bridge there. The undertaking of this project was, in fact, to be a unique event in the annals of the Society.

Excursions to places of interest became a regular part of the Society's activities in 1845, when a visit was made to Adel church. A seal was designed for the Society by John West Hugall, a YAYAS secretary, in 1850. A year later, the Society entered the publishing field as a member of the union of architectural societies which produced The Associated Societies' Reports and Papers, a venture which continued until 1935. The pattern of lectures, excursions and grants continued until the last two decades of the 19th Century when the Society went into an almost terminal decline.

With the birth of the new century however, the seeds of a revival were sown. New members were recruited, including Dr W.A. Evelyn who exerted an influence that was to make the Society a significant force in the affairs of the City of York. To recognise the change of emphasis in its interests the words 'and York Archaeological' were added to its title to give it the usually used acronym of YAYAS.

Until he died in 1935 Dr Evelyn led many campaigns, with varying degrees of success, in an attempt to prevent the City's historic heritage being eroded. After the Second World War, the Society continued to exert its influence and was particularly well represented on the Corporation's Shambles Area Committee which planned the creation of Newgate Market. Now, as a member of the Conservation Areas Advisory Panel, it continues to make informed comment on planning matters in the City.
Thus on a more secure footing the Society has completed the 20th century without any further causes for disquiet: in 1992 the Society celebrated its 150th anniversary with a series of special events for its members.

YAYAS still continues to provide lectures and excursions and has become a considerable publisher of books and journals pertaining to its field of interest. As the success of any Society depends on a healthy membership, YAYAS invites all those with an interest in the architectural and archaeological heritage of York and Yorkshire to join and ensure that the Society continues its good work well into the 21st century.

GB0192-737 · Collectivité · 1863-present

The Society was established in Huddersfield in 1863 but within a few years extended its scope to the whole county and adopted the title 'The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association'. Archaeology and history have since become two scholarly disciplines, and the Society has become 'The Yorkshire Archaeological and Historical Society'.

The aims and objects of the Society are around the 'examination, preservation and illustration of the History, Architecture, Antiquities, Manners, Customs, Arts and Traditions of the county of York…'

These aims guide the work of the Society, although the emphasis on one theme or another may change with the passage of time. Members share a passion for Yorkshire's past and a commitment to the Society's aims, and, as volunteers, their commitment drives all our activities forward.

Over the years, much has been achieved but more remains to be done to ensure that future generations have as much information about their origins as can realistically be recorded.

Financially, in addition to the subscriptions of members, large projects depend increasingly on the generosity of donors, grant-giving bodies and on partnerships with other organisations.

Yorkshire Dialect Society
GB0192-738 · Collectivité · 1897-present

On 10 November 1894, Joseph Wright addressed a meeting about a mammoth project to prepare and publish an English Dialect Dictionary. The committee formed as a result of this meeting, which eventually collected some 350,000 Yorkshire words and phrases, was to be the nucleus of the Yorkshire Dialect Society, officially inaugurated on 27th March 1897.

Professor Wright was born in 1855 in Idle, Bradford, started work at the age of six, and on reaching his teens and while working in one of the many mills in the West Riding, he taught himself to read and write, set up his own night school at home to supplement his income, and went on to become a teacher, and eventually a professor at Oxford.

Even his dream of publishing the Dictionary was marred by him not finding anyone willing to take the risk, and he ended up publishing it at his own, not inconsiderable, expense. He went on expanding his academic knowledge until his death in 1930.

In 1946, Professor Harold Orton, in a lecture delivered at Sheffield University, spoke of the urgent need for an English dialect atlas. This became the well-known Survey of English Dialects which was directed from the University of Leeds in the 1950 and 1960s. Members of the Society took part in this survey, most notably a former Honorary Secretary, Stanley Ellis, who played a leading role in the fieldwork. In 1949 a collection of dialect was published under the title A White Rose Garland. Containing a wealth of poems, prose, sayings, colloquialisms, and information about the county, it is long out of print but copies are occasionally to be found in second-hand bookshops.

In 1997, the Society organised a series of get-togethers to celebrate us reaching the magical 100 mark. No telegram from the Palace, but lots of kind and supportive comments, plus our AGM and dinner in York, and meetings at the Hovingham home of our then President, Sir Marcus Worsley, and at Saltaire, where Joseph Wright, at an early age, had worked in Salt's Mill.

The Society remains one of the world's-oldest dialect societies.

York Insurance Committee
GB0192-739 · Collectivité · c.1912-1952

The York Insurance Committee was established as a result of the National Insurance Act of 1911. It's purpose was to administer the panel of participating doctors, chemists and others who participated in the scheme under which insured working people had access to free medical care.

After the introduction of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948, the York Insurance Committee was superseded by the York Executive Council which oversaw NHS doctors, pharmacists and others.

GB0192-74 · Collectivité · 1212-present

This is the original title of the corporate body of the citizens of York, as used in charters and other legal documents.
This is the original title of the ancient corporation, which was reformed in 1835. In 1974 it became a district council within North Yorkshire County Council and then a unitary authority once more as the City of York Council in 1996.

Yorkshire Naturalists Union
GB0192-740 · Collectivité · ?-present

The Yorkshire Naturalists Union is an association of amateur and professional naturalists covering a wide range of aspects of natural history. It has been in existence for over 150 years.

Members study the 'old' county of Yorkshire, as individuals and through our many Affiliated Societies, many of which are local naturalists' groups. The YNU organises field meetings throughout the county and an annual conference.

University of York
GB0192-741 · Collectivité · 1963-present

The University of York was founded in October 1963 by royal charter. It provides higher level education and degree programmes for students.

As a self-governing institution with charitable status, the University enjoys a high degree of autonomy. It receives funding for teaching from the Government's Office for Students (OfS) which also acts as the main regulator for universities to ensure they fulfil their charity law obligations. It also receives funding from Research England, the council which oversees research and knowledge exchange in the English universities. The University makes annual returns of information to the OfS and also submits an annual Operating and Financial Review to Companies House.

East Riding Dialect Society
GB0192-742 · Collectivité · 1984-present

The East Riding Dialect Society was founded in 1984 by Donald Bemrose of Bridlington who was concerned about the erosion of the East Riding dialect. It is a membership-based organisation with an active events programme.

GB0192-743 · Collectivité · 1975-present

The City of York and District Family History Society was founded in 1975 in order to further the interest in Family History Research. It is run entirely by volunteers working in their spare time, with the aim of bringing together local people who share the same interest and to provide a point of contact for those members who, although not living in the area, have their roots within the modern Archdeaconry.

The Society covers the modern Archdeaconry of York which stretches from Coxwold, Hovingham and Sherburn in Harfordlythe in the North to Ledsham, Birkin, Selby and Drax in the South, as well as from Bramham, Bilton and Sherburn in Elmet in the West to Huggate and Bubwith in the East.

The Society's area overlaps parishes covered in the West by the Yorkshire Archaeological Society Family History Section, in the East by The East Yorkshire Family History Society and in the North by Ryedale Family History Society.

Joseph Rowntree Foundation
GB0192-744 · Collectivité · 1904-present

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) was founded in 1904 as the Joseph Rowntree Village Trust (JRVT), before changing its name to the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust (JRMT) in 1959 and finally to its present form in 1990. It was one of three Trusts established by the York Quaker philanthropist and businessman Joseph Rowntree to continue his family's pioneering work in the field of social reform; the others being the Joseph Rowntree Social Service Trust (now the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust) and the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust.

The JRF is also the owner of a subsidiary private limited company, Clifton Estate Ltd, which was created in 1926 to manage land and properties in Clifton. Since 1968 the Trust's housing operations have been managed through the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Housing Trust, later renamed the Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust, as well as through the Joseph Rowntree Housing Society Ltd (between 1980 and 1996).

As of 2018 the JRF describes itself as an independent social change organisation working to solve UK poverty through research, policy, collaboration, and practical solutions.


From its foundation the JRVT was closely tied to the Rowntree family and the family owned confectionery company Rowntree & Co Ltd. Joseph Rowntree endowed all three Trusts with shares in the company and the six founding Trustees (shared by all the Trusts) were members of his family and company directors. However each Trust had its own distinct character and mission, albeit all in service of Joseph Rowntree's overriding commitment, set out in his 1904 Trust deed, to seeking out the 'underlying causes of weakness or evil in a community' rather than merely 'remedying their more superficial manifestations.'

The JRVT was envisioned as a Housing Trust that would provide attractive, sanitary and well built homes for rent in village communities with good quality recreational and communal facilities. Its tenants were to be drawn from all levels of society, with a mix of houses and rents so that village life would be within the reach of the average working man. In setting out his plans for such communities, Joseph Rowntree drew on the experience of fellow Quakers such as the Cadburys who had created a model village at Bournville in the 1890s although Rowntree did not intend to create 'company villages' but rather communities open to all.

To this end the JRVT was endowed with a significant amount of property as well as company shares, making it the wealthiest of the Trusts and the only one intended from the very beginning to be permanent. This property included the West Huntington estate, on which Joseph Rowntree had already begun work on his own model village of New Earswick. He had purchased the 163 acre estate in 1901 and the first twenty-eight cottages, designed by innovative architects Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker, were built in 1902-1903. The JRVT took over responsibility for the development of New Earswick in 1904 and this remained its primary function until the 1950s.

The first phase of building under the JRVT took place between 1904 and 1918 when work on the estate was funded entirely by the Trust to a plan prepared by Unwin and Parker. Bricks and tiles were provided by the Trust's own works and the Trust was also responsible for all road repairs, sewage disposal, street lighting and landscaping. The plan included wide tree-lined avenues and around twelve acres of land to be reserved for recreational use and provided sites for key amenities such as the central Folk Hall, completed in 1906, which provided space for meetings, concerts, the village library and other functions, and the New Earswick Elementary School (renamed New Earswick Primary School in 1942) completed in 1911. The Trust also operated a model dairy at White Rose Farm, using Carl Sorensen's pioneering methods of milk production to provide a high quality supply for the village.

In 1919 Raymond Unwin was appointed Chief Architect to the Ministry of Health and Barry Parker took over his work for the Trust, beginning the second phase of development at New Earswick which lasted until 1936. In the post war period rising costs and a shortage of materials meant the Trust could no longer support the full cost of development and were obliged to make use of government subsidies and to simplify their designs. The resulting drive for economy in all aspects of building had a significant effect on the original plan for the village. The building programme was continued on a year by year basis, Parker introducing a series of cul-de-sacs so that each expansion could be completed within a year and shorter roads were needed to supply each new development.

Approximately 259 new houses were completed in New Earswick between 1919 and 1936 and the Folk Hall was considerably enlarged in 1935. At the same time the Trust was developing the Clifton estate left to the Rowntree Trusts at Joseph Rowntree's death and fully controlled by the JRVT from 1928. Unlike New Earswick the estate at Clifton was developed for sale, although by 1941 a minority of the houses there still remained unsold and were let as rentals.

However the building programme began to slow in the economic depression of the 1930s, with the closure of the Trust's own brick and tile works in 1934 followed by a complete cessation of house building in 1936. Work did not cease entirely however, with work beginning on the new Joseph Rowntree Senior School in 1939, a joint venture between the Trust and Local Authority. The school was opened in 1942 and in the same year the Trust appointed Louis de Soissons as their new consultant architect. The Trust also acquired Homestead House at Clifton from Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree in 1936, on the condition that the grounds were maintained by the Trust as a public park. The House was subsequently let to Seebohm's son Peter Rowntree who oversaw the park and also ran a market garden on the site known as the Clifton Fruit Company.

The development of New Earswick entered its third phase with the close of the Second World War. The Trust purchased adjacent land at Kettlestring Farms in 1945 and began a substantial expansion of the village in 1949 into the area previously occupied by White Rose Farm. The work continued throughout the 1950s and included a mixture of houses, bungalows and flats as the Trust began to focus their efforts on creating a better balance of accommodation in the village. At the same time the Trust continued to improve their existing housing stock with the use of government Improvement Grants, in particular through the installation of central heating and indoor bathrooms.

The new balance of accommodation included housing for the elderly and for single professional people. The Trust entered into discussions with the Local Authority concerning the provision of accommodation for the elderly within the confines of the National Assistance Act of 1948 which had extended the role of voluntary organisations in this area. In this the Trust was influenced by Seebohm Rowntree's 1947 report on the welfare of the elderly which had recommended small, well designed homes and group homes for those no longer able to fully care for themselves. Consequently the Trust built twelve cottages for the elderly and converted Westbrook House on Western Terrace into a small group home with a resident warden. The home proved so popular that it was transferred to a larger house, The Garth, in 1949 and extended in 1958-1960 to provide interconnected bungalows for the elderly known as Garth Court.

The Trust also commissioned a block of twenty flats for single business and professional people between 1957 and 1960. Recognising that this kind of accommodation was more common in continental Europe, they commissioned two Swedish architects to design and equip the flats. The completed flats boasted the first use of underfloor heating in New Earswick and Swedish standards of insulation with extensive use of double glazing.


The administration of the JRVT was overseen by its Trustees, in whom was vested all of the property and income belonging to the Trust. Initially limited to eight in number, the Trustees were required to meet quarterly, but usually met more often in the early decades when New Earswick was still under development. New Trustee appointments could be made by Joseph Rowntree or, after his death, by the original Trustees, and thereafter alternatively by continuing Trustees and the Religious Society of Friends. The first Trustee from outside the family was Thomas Henry Appleton who was appointed in 1906 following the death of Joseph's son, John Wilhelm Rowntree. The Trustees appointed a Chairman from among their number and the Chair was re-elected on a yearly basis.

The Trustees took all major decisions relating to the work and policies of the JRVT but the day to day administration was increasingly carried out by a range of sub-committees and a growing number of office staff. In the first three decades there was a great deal of overlap between Trust and Rowntree Company administration. All three Rowntree Trusts initially shared an office at the Cocoa Works, the company headquarters in York, and in many cases also shared staff with each other and with Rowntrees. The Trust's first permanent secretary, Percy Jackson Pfluger, joined Rowntree & Co in 1913 and was assigned to the Trusts' office but remained, like many early 'Trust staff' on the company payroll. He was appointed as JRVT secretary in 1933, whilst also serving as temporary secretary to the Joseph Rowntree Social Service Trust. In addition to acting as secretary for the JRVT, he prepared the Trust's annual reports and accounts. He remained in post for the next fifty years, retiring in 1963. The Rowntree Company's legal and building departments also regularly advised the JRVT and carried out work on its behalf.

It was not until the 1940s that the administration of company and Trusts began to diverge, although the company's solicitor continued to act for the Trust. In 1942 it was noted in the Trust minutes that its staff were now no longer part of the Rowntree company or of their pension scheme. In 1948 the JRVT finally moved from the shared Trust office in the Cocoa Works to the ground floor of Beverley House, Clifton, which had been acquired by the Trust during the war. Beverley House was the headquarters of the JRVT, JRCT and later also the JRSST until 1990 and underwent a number of alterations and extensions during that time as the Trusts' activities grew.

In 1946 the first full time officer, Lewis E. Waddilove, joined the Trust as 'social investigator' and assistant to the Trustees. In 1947 he was added to the newly created Executive Committee consisting of York-based Trustees John Stephenson Rowntree and Peter Rowntree and secretary Pfluger, which was set up to deal with the routine work of the Trust, leaving more important matters and policy decisions to the quarterly meetings. By 1954 Waddilove was described as the Trust's Executive Officer.

The Executive Committee was supported by a number of other sub-committees of varied duration. One of the most important of these was the Earswick Committee which was created at the inaugural Trust meeting in 1904 'to exercise the powers of the Trustees in respect of the Earswick estate'. The committee comprised non-Trustees and included the New Earswick Housing Manager (originally called the Estate Agent) who was responsible for the welfare of tenants, allocation of houses and collection of rents. The post, which was held by a succession of women, was originally a part time one, but was made full time in 1918 and continued until 1967. The Earswick Committee reported directly to the Trustees at their quarterly meetings.

Other sub-committees were appointed as and when needed and their minutes and reports were shared with Trustees. An Education Committee was appointed in 1909 for example to report on the type of school most suitable for the village and the resulting Primary School and Senior School was managed by a Foundation Managers Committee and a Modern School Committee. In the late 1940s The Garth Committee was formed to manage the home for the elderly founded first at Westbrook House in New Earswick, before being transferred to The Garth in 1951. There was additionally a Pension Fund Committee from 1950, a Plans Committee of villagers to give feedback on proposed building developments, and a House Selection Committee to assist the Housing Manager with the selection of tenants.

The Trustees and its Earswick Sub-Committee also worked in conjunction with a representative council of villagers who met first as the Earswick Council in November 1904 and then as the New Earswick Village Council from October 1907. Consisting of eleven members, one of whom was appointed by the Trustees, the Village Council managed the Folk Hall, arranged lectures and classes, and represented the village in all matters concerning housing and village life. From 1935 they also administered an Amenities Grant in the village on behalf of the Trust, contributing to the funding of the village's many social clubs and services, as well as issuing a regular New Earswick Bulletin of news and community information.


Though its primary concern before the 1950s was the development and management of New Earswick, the JRVT had also made a number of important contributions to housing policy and planning on a national and international level. New Earswick itself was a living and working example of the kind of housing standards the JRVT hoped to promote elsewhere and the Trust frequently welcomed visitors to the village, including over 200 members of the German Garden Cities Association in 1909.

They also made grants to organisations working to improve housing standards. In 1910 they made a grant to the National Housing Reform Council and in 1912 they began a long association with the National Housing and Town Planning Council. From 1919 the Trust also gave support to the Garden Cities and Town Planning Association which became the Town and Country Planning Association in 1940, as well as the London Housing Committee. In York the Trust funded an architect and planning consultant to prepare a master plan of improvement works in the city which became the 1948 exhibition 'A Plan for the City of York.'

The wider part that the Trust could play in questions of housing policy and social life came increasingly to the fore in the 1940s and 50s. In the early 1940s Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree wrote to his fellow Trustees to remind them that the 1904 Trust Deed allowed them to use their resources for any object that was of benefit to the working classes. As work on New Earswick inevitably slowed, the Trust would have more income at its disposal to devote to other projects and should think seriously about what its future role should be.

The resulting discussion continued, on and off, for the next fifteen years and involved not just the JRVT but also their sister Trusts. Meetings held in 1954, 1955, 1956 and 1957 between the JRVT, their sister Trusts, the Charity Commission and consultants drawn from the world of academia and social policy considered at length the powers afforded to the Trust by its founding Deed and the future direction of its work, taking into consideration potential overlap with the work of the JRCT and JRSST. It was decided that the JRVT should broaden their work to include that of social research and enquiry, seeking out the 'underlying causes' of social ills stressed by Joseph Rowntree in 1904. These new far-reaching powers were enshrined in a private Act of Parliament brought by the JRVT in 1959 which allowed the Trust to support research into housing and social questions and to work overseas.

To match this wider scope of activity the Trust's name was formally changed to the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust (JRMT) and from 1960 the Trust began to publish triennial reports detailing its work. Its administrative structure was also revised to reflect its increase in activity. In 1961 the positions of Trust Director and Assistant Director were created with responsibility for the day to day management of the Trust. Lewis Waddilove became the first Director, a post he held until 1979, and James Edward Ford Longman the first Assistant Director. The Director liaised directly with the Trust Chairman and reported to the quarterly meeting of Trustees which continued to take all strategic and policy decisions and approve the allocation of funds. Every project supported by the Trust was in addition to have its own Advisory Committee to act as an intermediary between Trust and grant recipient. These committees usually included a Trustee and the Trust Director.

From 1959 onwards there was therefore a significant expansion of the Trust's activities into the fields of housing policy and research, community and family life, the training of social workers, and social services in the UK and abroad, as well as support for Yorkshire based projects. Many projects were initiated by the Trust itself, in keeping with Joseph Rowntree's instruction to his Trusts to 'seek out' and address the underlying causes of social ills. In 1958 the Trust had launched a group of influential studies on national housing policy and rents under the direction of David Donnison known collectively as the Rowntree Trust Housing Study. Over the next twenty years other JRMT funded studies followed, investigating the effects of the 1957 Rent Act, the Voluntary Housing Movement, housing and the mobility of labour, and the development of Housing Associations amongst other subjects. The Trust also offered financial aid to a number of housing organisations, including the National Federation of Housing Societies, the Shelter Housing Advice Centre (part of the charity Shelter) and the National Association of Almshouses. In 1971 the JRMT supported the creation of the Tuke Housing Association which provided social housing in and around York, taking responsibility for its administration (which it later transferred to the Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust).

In the field of community and family life the Trust turned its attention to the rapid changes in urban life, funding a 1961 study of 'high rise' living that led to further guidance, again funded by the Trust, on the design and care of playgrounds for children in urban areas. Other early projects supported by the Trust included a study of services for the elderly in Tyneside, York Family Service Units, and the National Birthday Trust Fund's research into perinatal mortality, as well as work on such wide ranging subjects as the sociology of law, race relations, drugs, and teenage delinquency. In 1959 the Trust also made a five year grant to the Institute of Community Studies to support a broad range of social research with a Trustee and Executive Officer Lewis Waddilove joining the Institute's Advisory Committee.

The Trust also gave key support to the Social Work Staff College (later the National Institute for Social Work Training) which was founded in 1961 with the joint funding of the JRMT and the Nuffield Foundation. The need for an Institute to coordinate professional social work training and support had been recognised in the 1959 report of the Younghusband Working Party which examined the role and training of social workers in health and welfare services. Together the JRMT and Nuffield Foundation purchased and adapted Mary Ward House as a site for the Institute and provided further funding over the next ten years. In 1972 the Institute's first Director, Robin Huws Jones, was invited to join the JRMT as Associate Director and he remained with the Trust as a consultant following his retirement, helping to shape its work in this area. In addition to this institutional support the Trust also contributed funding to a number of regional social work training courses at Liverpool, Tyneside and York.

At York the JRMT played a key role in the foundation of the university in 1963, making a contribution of £100,000 to be spread over ten years. In addition to financial support the Trust also stated its intention to co-operate with any university departments that shared its research interests, particular in the social sciences. In 1962 the Trust was approached by the university regarding a proposed Institute of Social and Economic Research that would further the kind of social research pursued by the Rowntree family and Trusts and employ research students from the social science departments. The Trust agreed to make a grant of £23,500 over five years towards the general expenses of the institute and to fund two research projects. The Institute was launched the following year under the management of an Advisory Committee which included a representative of the Trust.

Whilst the Trust's initial funding to the Institute ended after five years, it continued to provide grants for individual projects such as Tony Atkinson and A. K. Maynard's re-analysis of Seebohm Rowntree's 1950 poverty survey, the report for which was published in 1981. Between 1981 and 1983 the Trust provided further funding for the creation of a broader social science research organisation, the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, which would include the Institute for Social and Economic Research as well as staff and research units from other disciplines. In 1989 the Trust founded a Chair of Housing Policy at the university as part of the new Centre for Housing Policy (CHP).

The effect of this wide-ranging work on the effects of housing policy, investigations into family and community life and social services and social science research was to focus the Trust more clearly on the need to influence the implementation of social policy at national level. In January 1971 the Trust made the decision to establish a national Centre for Studies in Social Policy, funded by the Trust but independent from it. The Centre launched in 1972 with the mission to advise government and local authorities in taking social policy decisions. In 1977 it merged with Political and Economic Planning to form the Policy Studies Institute which continued to enjoy the support of the Trust. In the 1980s the JRMT found, bought and converted a new headquarters for the Institute in Park Village East, London.

In the same year that the Centre for Studies in Social Policy was launched the Trust took responsibility for a government initiative that would lead to the formation of the influential Social Policy Research Unit at the University of York. In December 1972, in the wake of the Thalidomide scandal, the Trust agreed to administer the Family Fund set up by the government to allocate money to families who had a child suffering from congenital disability. The Trust allocated the funds within guidelines agreed with the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS), the first time that an independent trust had thus administered public funds to deliver a service akin to that directed locally by statutory authorities.

In order to monitor the progress of the Fund, to collate the necessary data reports to administer it and explore the broader research opportunities in social policy it presented, the Trust established an independent research project in the Department of Social Administration and Social Work at the University of York, led by Jonathan Bradshaw. The project was launched in August 1973, with the costs shared between the DHSS and the Trust. It was originally intended that the research project would run for three years but in 1975 the research team were asked by the DHSS to become one of their standing research units, developing a broader research programme on children with disabilities. The DHSS subsequently took over the funding of the unit and it was renamed the Social Policy Research Unit, although the unit continued to maintain close links with the Family Fund and would later undertake other large scale projects for the JRF. These included the Poverty and Social Exclusion Survey in Britain in 1999 and the Minimum Income Standards project in 2006-2008.


The Trust's work in this area was not confined to the UK. The 1959 parliamentary Act established the Trust's authority to provide houses and community services anywhere in the Commonwealth and to pursue research anywhere in the world. The initiative for this work came from the Trust's involvement with the National Citizens Advice Bureaux, run by the National Council of Social Service in the UK, and the suggestion that a similar service, adapted to local needs, could be of use in those Commonwealth countries adapting to the pressures of rapid industrial and urban change. The Trust secured the services of an experienced officer from the National Citizens Advice Bureaux Committee who visited Northern and Southern Rhodesia (later Zambia) in late 1959 to meet people engaged in voluntary social work there. Her report claimed that a Council of Social Service would be of more use to coordinate the various voluntary services before Citizens Advice Bureaux could be established.

The Trust subsequently arranged for other experienced officer to travel to Rhodesia for six months in 1960 to coordinate services, leading to the creation of Citizens Advice Bureaux in Salisbury, Bulawayo and two additional African townships in Southern Rhodesia. In order to establish the permanent body needed to manage these new bureaux the Trust engaged H. R. Poole of the Liverpool Council of Social Service who set up a base in Salisbury for a year and helped establish a Northern Rhodesian Council of Social Service with subsidiary local councils and a series of related committees and conferences, as well as responding to enquiries from Uganda and Nyasaland (later Malawi). The Trust subsequently helped to set up Councils of Social Service in Southern Rhodesia, Uganda and Kenya.

The considerations that governed these initial forays into overseas aid also shaped their support of other projects in Africa. The Trust's annual reports made it clear that they were all too aware of the pitfalls of a British charity influencing social and political developments in societies they had little direct knowledge of. Thus they sought to use their funds to support projects they could maintain a personal relationship with, that furthered their key commitment to improved social and community services and housing, and to allow these projects to be shaped by their own evolving societies, funding trained staff and necessary equipment for existing projects rather than establishing wholly new projects of their own.

Between 1960 and 1963 the Trust provided funding for the Uganda Youth Council's youth leader training courses in Kampala. They also made a grant to the Outward Bound Association of Rhodesia to fund a Training Officer from 1965 and paid for a full time warden at the Waddington Community Centre at Lusaka which was open to both Africans and Europeans. They also made a contribution towards fellowships for three African graduate students to come to Britain to study social administration and supported the secretarial training of twenty girls in Zambia. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s they also made several grants to the pioneering Jairos Jiri Association for Rehabilitation of the Disabled and Blind in Bulawayo to pay for trained staff.

In housing too the Trust worked with existing organisations, advancing a loan for the purchase of land and the building of co-operative housing and shops in Bulawayo in 1962-1963, managed by the Mhlahlandhlela Housing Co-operative in collaboration with the Bulawayo Municipality. In the 1970s the Trust also made a financial contribution towards staff costs at a self-help housing scheme in Kafue, near Lusaka, which had been set up by the American Friends Service Committee and the Zambian government, as well as to a group of housing co-operatives in Lesotho.

The Trust took the decision to discontinue its work in Africa in 1988.


The broader powers exercised by the Trust in the fields of social and housing policy and research did not undermine its core commitment to New Earswick and the practical provision of affordable and good quality housing and amenities in the UK. However its new dual role as a charitable body administering an endowment for the purposes of social research and experiment and as a housing association developing a housing programme with the aid of government subsidies gave rise to a number of legal difficulties. In 1967 the Trust took the decision to separate its role as a housing association from its other activities in order to divide and safeguard its status as a housing trust and an endowed charity, and to ensure its housing work could continue to qualify for statutory grants and loans. The Joseph Rowntree Memorial Housing Trust (later the Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust) was launched on 1 January 1968 and was vested with all of the land and property of the JRMT, including the New Earswick estate and adjacent Kettlestring Farms. In addition it received an annual grant from the JRMT to carry out its work.

The legal distinction between the two Trusts was not, at least in its early decades, always reflected in its operations and administration. The JRMT and JRMHT shared Trustees, staff and offices, although the administration of the JRMHT was delegated to a New Earswick Management Committee and the finances of the two were kept separate. The housing programme followed by the JRMHT was to continue on from that of the JRMT and included the extensive New Earswick modernisation programme begun in 1966 and continued throughout the 1970s which saw the interiors of the oldest houses in the village extensively remodelled.

The two Trusts have continued to work closely together and this is reflected in their archives which show a significant degree of overlap. The JRMT had the power to contribute to any part of the work of the Housing Trust that was legally defined as charitable and the work of both Trusts was included in the published Triennial Reports from 1968 to 1991 and then in the Annual Reports from 1991 to 2003. It was only in 2004 that the two Trusts began to publish separate Annual Reports, although the first two Housing Trust reports describe it as the 'operational arm' of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, and thereafter they are described as working in partnership.


The late 1980s were a time of significant change for the Trust. In 1988 Rowntree Mackintosh was taken over by the Swiss company Nestlé. Although the JRMT, like the JRCT, had divested itself of some of its Rowntree shares and diversified its investments following the Cocoa Losses of 1973, company shares still accounted for 60 per cent of the JRMT's income in 1988, and made up 3.8 per cent of the company's ordinary share capital. The takeover was opposed by both the JRMT and JRCT (the JRSST had disposed of its Rowntree shares in the 1970s) and its success obliged both to sell their remaining company shares, severing the direct link between the Trusts and the company but almost doubling the value of the JRMT's assets to £110 million.

As a result of the takeover the JRMT was able to take back ownership of The Homestead, previously the home of Seebohm Rowntree and then leased to Rowntree Mackintosh as their international headquarters. In 1990 the Trust moved their offices from Beverley House to The Homestead and as of 2018 it remains their York headquarters.

It was also able to devote more money to its research and development programme, which came under review in the same year as the takeover. In its 1988-1991 Triennial Report the Director was keen to stress the active role of the Trust in research and development, stating that it did not make grants 'in the traditional sense' of contributing to charitable appeals or giving to good causes, but rather supported specific programmes of original work decided, and often initiated, by the Trustees, and subject to regular review. This was described in later reports as a mandate to search, demonstrate and influence. The boost to Trust income meant that the Trust now had considerably more resources to develop its programmes, in 1987 the JRMT gave £2.8 million in new grant commitments, by 1991 this had risen to £6.1 million.

In their 1988 review Trustees agreed that housing would continue to be a major activity of the Trust, as would social care, which would be expanded to include community care and the delivery of services to support families and carers. Its work for those with learning difficulties would also be broadened to include all aspects of disability. Social policy, which had been a major area of Trust work since the 1960s, was in turn to be confined in the future to social security issues and income support, with the Trust's work on employment (and Africa) discontinued. The Trust also established Local and Central Government Relations as a distinct area of activity, a field of work that had begun in the mid 1980s under the direction of Deputy Trust Chairman, Sir Charles Carter.

These areas of work were to be supported by committees of Trustees and outside experts. In 1991 these were the Housing Research Committee, the Social Policy Research Committee, the Community Care and Disability Committee, and the Local and Central Government Relations Research Committee. Most grant funded projects also had an individual Advisory Committee to offer support and enable the Trust to review its progress, and all were from 1990 subject to new Project Agreements which set out the expectations of both the Trust and the researchers and committed them to contributing a clear summary of their work for the 'Findings' series of four page summaries of Trust funded research projects.

At the same time there were changes to the Trust's staff as Director Robin Guthrie left to take up the role of Chief Charity Commissioner and was replaced by Richard Best, previously the Director of the National Federation of Housing Associations. Under his directorship the Trust changed its name to the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to better differentiate it from its sister Trusts, and set about raising its public profile.

Best saw an immediate need to make the results of the JRF's broad range of research more readily available to policy makers, the press and the public, and in 1989 Roland Hurst, the Trust's first Director of Information Services, was appointed to manage the dissemination of the Trust's research output through new publications, specialist briefings and a closer relationship with the media. As part of his work he launched the 'Findings', as well as 'Search', a more detailed quarterly magazine.

By the end of 1991 the Directorate and staff of the JRF and JRHT combined numbered some 250 people. This included five Directors: the Director of the Foundation and the Directors of the Family Fund, of Housing and Property Services, Research, Finance, and of Information Services, and, where relevant, their reporting committees. Reporting to the Director of Research were the Social Policy Research, Housing Research, Local and Central Government Relations Research, and the Community Care and Disability Committees.

Meanwhile the housing operations undertaken by the JRF and its associated bodies (the Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust and the Joseph Rowntree Housing Society Ltd) were administered by the Housing Committee and New Earswick Management Committee, both reporting to the Director of Housing and Property Services. In 1993 the JRF added the new post of Housing Research Development Officer to bridge the gap between housing research and housing operations and to ensure the research directly influenced the work of the JRHT. In 1995 a new Development Overview Committee was added to support research and development projects involving the JRHT.

Although the work of the Trust focused in the early 1990s on the five main areas set out in 1988, projects within these programmes were often grouped together around a particular theme, with their results analysed in a final overarching report commissioned by the JRF. The Trust's 'Action on Estates' programme in 1993-1994 for example brought together eight research projects in the housing field, as well as practical work at the Bell Farm housing estate in York, to make detailed recommendations on ways to empower residents of estates across the whole of the UK, including the influential report 'Unleashing the Potential' by Marilyn Taylor.

From the mid 1990s the JRF adopted the overarching theme of 'strengthening communities and combating exclusion', and this began to shape much of their programme of research and development. In 1995 it brought together 30 research projects under a Trust commissioned Income and Wealth Inquiry, chaired by JRF Chairman Sir Peter Barclay, the final report of which received a great deal of publicity. In the same year the Trust's Family and Parenthood programme brought together 22 research projects in the report 'Family and Parenthood: Supporting Families, Preventing Breakdown' by David Utting. In 1996 Lynn Watson brought together findings from 20 Trust funded projects in the field of housing and community care to analyse the housing needs of care users and the effects of the 1993 Community Care Act. Where relevant, this research could directly influence the practical work of the Housing Trust, such as with the 'Lifetime Homes' scheme that saw the design criteria of the JRF's Lifetime Homes Group applied to the JRHT's 'Woodlands' housing development in York.

A major area of work during this period was the establishment by the JRF of Communities that Care UK, a company that received its core funding from the Trust between 1997 and 2001, when it became financially independent. Based on an American scheme, CTC UK focused on early intervention and prevention services for children and their families at risk of developing social problems. The scheme was trialled in three areas and, following an evaluation commissioned by the JRF, was extended to more than twenty communities by the end of 2001.

Trust committees changed to reflect these new and emerging priorities. Community Care and Disability became the Social Care and Disability Committee in the mid 1990s. In 1997 the Social Policy Research Committee became the Work, Income and Social Policy Committee, and in 1998 the Housing Committee became the Housing and Neighbourhoods Committee. In 1997 the Trust also added a Young People and Families Committee to direct its expanding youth intervention work.

So that it could continue to respond to wider change and ensure its work remained relevant, in 1998 the Trust created a new Policy and Practice Development Department, led by a new Director, to engage with external developments and agendas and liaise directly with the JRHT and Care Services department when needed. In 2002, as it approached its centenary year, the Trust conducted a further strategic review of its programmes in order to identify new areas of work and adjust its committee structure where necessary. The review identified the Trust's core areas of work as housing and deprivation, the twin issues of 'poverty' and 'place' which lay at the heart of the work undertaken by Joseph and Seebohm Rowntree and in the foundation of the JRVT itself in 1904.

Research and development programmes in these two areas were to be overseen by two existing committees, the Housing and Neighbourhoods Committee, and the Work, Income and Social Policy Committee which was renamed the Poverty and Disadvantage Committee.
Beyond these core areas the review recommended the replacement of standing research and development committees with a series of more flexible time-limited committees, responsible for individual programmes of work. Thus the Social Care and Disability Committee and the Children, Young People and Families Committee closed in 2003. They were replaced by a number of single programme committees, including a Drug and Alcohol Research Committee, an Immigration and Inclusion Committee and a Parenting Research and Development Committee.

Between 2002 and 2005 the JRF carried out a wide range of work through these standing and single programme committees. In the field of housing the Trust advocated for more affordable housing, as exemplified by its CASPAR (City Centre Apartments for Single People at Affordable Rents) scheme in Leeds and Birmingham, and its administrative support for the All-Party Parliamentary Group on homelessness and housing need. In the field of 'deprivation' the Trust produced its annual Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion survey, which it extended to Northern Ireland in 2006, as well as launching the Public Interest in Poverty initiative which surveyed public attitudes towards poverty, and advocating for access to affordable credit. In response to wider changes the JRF also commissioned research into the experiences and perceptions of migrants working in low waged jobs in the UK and carried out a comprehensive review of modern slavery.

Its work with families and young people included research into anti-social behaviour and funding a 2005 independent Commission on Families and Wellbeing of Children which was set up to look at the relationship between the state and the family. This work intersected with research on educational and employment opportunities available to disabled young people. The Foundation also continued to advocate for sustainable funding for long term care for the elderly, producing a series of costed policy options and working in partnership with the King's Fund, Age Concern, and Help the Aged to discuss these policy concerns with older people.

To aid the dissemination of this work, Trustees also approved a number of new programmes for the Policy and Practice Development Department which would build on the findings of JRF research and development activity with the aim of influencing policy makers on key issues such as neighbourhood regeneration, affordable homes for single people, the value of mixed income communities, and meeting the challenge of long term care for the elderly.

The long-serving Director of both the JRF and JRHT, Richard Best, retired in 2006 and was replaced in 2007 by Julia Unwin. A further review of the strategic direction of the JRF took place in 2007 which expanded the Foundation's core interests to poverty, place and empowerment. As a result of the review the Foundation established three new strategy groups to advice Trustees on its search, demonstration and influencing work under these three themes. Key research in these areas included routes out of poverty, barriers to reducing inequality, the regeneration of places, and meeting housing needs in times of change. The Foundation also sought to return to its founding principles by commissioning a public consultation on the nature of 'social evils' in the twenty-first century and how these had changed over the previous century, followed by analysis of the issues identified and exploration of possible solutions. This work was published in 2009 as 'Contemporary Social Evils', incorporating new research by the National Centre for Social Research.

A number of new programmes were introduced in 2009 under these three key themes. These included an examination of how climate change would affect the people and places facing poverty and disadvantage in the UK, how to offer a 'better life' to older people in residential care, and an exploration of the impact of globalisation on UK poverty. The Foundation also launched the JRF Housing Market Taskforce to work towards the establishment of a more stable housing market, particularly for vulnerable households.

In 2012 the JRF agreed a new Strategic Plan for 2012-2014 following consultations with staff, Trustees, and external stakeholders across the UK. The plan organised the Foundation's work around the themes of poverty, place, and ageing society and introduced a number of new programmes. These included a three year programme to contribute to evidence and debate on the wider implications of an ageing society, care for people with dementia, and care homes as places to live and work, as well as initiatives encouraging businesses to become 'anti poverty employers' and a partnership with the charity Crisis to monitor UK homelessness. The Foundation also made substantial grants to a programme exploring the relationship between housing and poverty, and to a major new four year programme to develop an anti-poverty strategy for the UK. The latter culminated in the launch of the country's first comprehensive plan to solve UK poverty, 'We Can Solve UK Poverty', in September 2016.

The 2015-2017 Strategic Plan adopted the three core themes of individuals and relationships, the places where people live, and work and worth. New programmes of work included the promotion of inclusive growth in cities, the 'reframing' of poverty to improve public and political debate on the subject, research into minimum income standards across the UK, and the relationship between poverty and ethnicity. The Foundation's current strategic plan sets out its priorities for 2018-2021, based upon the two overarching outcomes that everyone should have a decent home in a good place, and that everyone should have decent living standards and prospects.

Northern Command
GB0192-745 · Collectivité · 1793-1972

Northern Command was a Home Command of the British Army from 1793-1889 and 1905–1972.

Great Britain was divided into military districts on the outbreak of war with France in 1793. The formation in the North, which included Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland and Durham, was originally based at Fenham Barracks in Newcastle upon Tyne until other districts were merged in after the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1840 Northern Command was held by Major-General Sir Charles James Napier, appointed in 1838. During his time the troops stationed within Northern Command were frequently deployed in support of the civil authorities during the Chartist unrest in the northern industrial cities. Napier was succeeded in 1841 by Major-General Sir William Gomm, when the command included the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, Durham, Yorkshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Flintshire, Denbighshire and the Isle of Man, with HQ at Manchester. Later the Midland Counties of Shropshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Warwickshire, Staffordshire and Northamptonshire were added and from 1850 to 1854 the Command included three sub-commands: NW Counties (HQ Manchester), NE Counties (HQ York) and Midlands (HQ Birmingham). From 1854 to 1857 there were two sub-commands, Northern Counties and Midland Counties, each with a brigade staff, but after that they disappeared and Northern Command remained a unitary command.

In 1876 a Mobilisation Scheme for the forces in Great Britain and Ireland was published, with the 'Active Army' divided into eight army corps based on the District Commands. 6th Corps and 7th Corps were to be formed within Northern Command, based at Chester and York respectively. The Northern Command Headquarters itself moved from Manchester to Tower House in Fishergate in York in 1878. The corps scheme disappeared in 1881, when the districts were retitled 'District Commands. Northern Command continued to be an important administrative organisation until 1 July 1889, when it was divided into two separate Commands: North Eastern, under Major-General Nathaniel Stevenson (HQ York), and North Western, under Major-General William Goodenough (HQ Chester).

The 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on six regional commands. As outlined in a paper published in 1903, V Corps was to be formed in a reconstituted Northern Command, with HQ at York. Major-General Sir Leslie Rundle was appointed acting General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOCinC) of Northern Command on 10 October 1903, and it reappears in the Army List in 1905, with the boundaries defined as 'Berwick-on-Tweed (so far as regards the Militia, Yeomanry and Volunteers) and the Counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Isle of Man. The defences on the southern shores of the estuaries of the Humber and Mersey are included in the Northern Command'.[9] By 1908 the Midland Counties of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Leicestershire and Rutland had been added, but Westmoreland, Cumberland and Lancashire had been moved into Western Command.

The Command HQ was established at Tower House in Fishergate in York in 1905. The Fishergate site was named Imphal Barracks in 1951, but closed in 1958, when Northern Command HQ moved to a new Imphal Barracks on Fulford Road, York. Portions of the former headquarters at Fishergate are now serviced accommodation. The Command was merged into HQ UK Land Forces (HQ UKLF) in 1972.

Yorkshire and Humberside Museums Council
GB0192-746 · Collectivité · 1980s-2000s

The Yorkshire and Humberside Museums Council was an umbrella organisation for member institutions in the region. It produced an annual magazine called 'Museums Alive!'

MySight York
GB0192-747 · Collectivité · 1979-present

York Blind and Partially Sighted Society was originally formed in 1979 as an organisation to provide services and facilities to those who are blind or partially sighted. The aim of the organisation is for its users to achieve independence in all aspects of life and sectors of society. The organisation is based in York city centre, and by 2020 had over 1,100 members. In 2019, to coincide with their 40th anniversary, the organisation changed its name to MySight York.