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GB0192-434 · Personne · 1859-1945

John Arthur Ransome Marriott was born on 17 August 1859 in Bowden, Cheshire, the eldest son of Francis Marriott and his wife Elizabeth. He was educated at Repton School and New College Oxford, graduating with a second class degree in modern history in 1882. He was active in the Canning Club during his undergraduate career.

In 1883 Marriott was appointed as a lecturer at New College, before taking up a position teaching modern history at Worcester College the following year. He continued at Worcester College until 1920, from 1914 onwards as a Fellow of the College, specialising in political and international history. During the course of his career he wrote over 40 books on historical and political subjects.

Marriott's major contribution to education dates from 1886, when he was recruited as an Oxford University extension lecturer by the secretary of the extension delegacy in Oxford, M. E. Sadler. Extension lecturers had been sent out by the university to give academic courses in provincial towns and cities in England since 1878. Marriott was immediately attracted to the work: he was a natural platform orator and able to hold large audiences. Marriott went on to succeed Sadler as head of the extension lectures in 1895.

Marriott had been adopted as a Conservative parliamentary candidate for East St Pancras in 1885, though he subsequently withdrew his candidacy. In the following year he was defeated in the general election as Conservative candidate for Rochdale. In 1914 he was defeated in a contest for the Conservative candidacy for the vacant Oxford University seat in parliament. But in March 1917 he was elected unopposed as Conservative MP for Oxford City, a beneficiary of the party-political truce under the wartime coalition. He was re-elected in the 'coupon' election of 1918, but defeated by the Liberal candidate in the general election of 1922. He returned to the Commons after the general election of 1923 as MP for York. There he was defeated in 1929 by a Labour candidate, and retired from active politics.

Marriott married Henrietta Robinson, daughter of the Reverend W. Percy Robinson, warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond, on 7 April 1891; they had one daughter, Elizabeth Dorothy Cicely (known as Cicely), who was born in 1892. Marriott was knighted in 1924, and he died at the Montpellier Hotel, Llandrinod Wells, on 6 June 1945.

Powell Frith; William (1819 - 1909)
GB0192-436 · Personne · 1819 - 1909

William Powell Frith was born in Aldfield, North Yorkshire on 19th January 1819. He moved to London to and began studying art in 1835, and later attended the Royal Academy Schools.

His connection to the Raine family is as follows: Angelo Raine was the great nephew of Frith. Raine was also good friends with Frith's niece, Molly Keyworth (married to Henry Keyworth). It is thought that Molly (daughter of Jane, who is featured in some of the Frith letters in the Raine collection) passed the letters on to Angelo Raine.

Hartley; Brian (1929 - 2005); Mr
GB0192-437 · Personne · 1929 - 2005

Brian Hartley was born in 1929, and attended Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1950, where he studied for the Natural Sciences Tripos. He then went on to gain a distinction in the Diploma in Prehistoric Archaeology. He retired from the University of Leeds in 1995, and passed away on 26th April 2005.

Ebor Cycling Club
GB0192-439 · Collectivité · 1931 -

The Ebor Cycling Club was founded in 1931 with a membership of 18. By 1935, their membership had reached 60.

Meredith; George (1923-2017); Mr
GB0192-440 · Personne · 1923-2017

George Meredith was a Normandy Veteran. He signed up to be in the army at Wicks Cross, London at the age of 17. He was in the Rifle Brigade initially, but was then transferred to the Royal Army Service Corps, where he became a driver, providing fuel and food to the troops. He could not drive prior to the war, but was trained to drive at Darley Dale after signing up. He landed at Normandy on 7th June, and did not return home until 1945.

George Meredith died in York Hospital in 2017 at the age of 92. The announcement of his death was made in York Press on 4 September 2017.

York Working-People's Hospital Fund
GB0192-441 · Collectivité · 1901-1935

York Work-People's Hospital Fund was founded by a small number of working men governors on 26th April 1901 to support the Country Hospital. It was diminished in 1935 due to the establishment of the York County and District Hospital Contributory Scheme in 1931.

Barritt; Bert (1925-2020); Mr
GB0192-442 · Personne · 1925-2020

Bert joined the army on 1st July 1943 after receiving his conscription letter on his 18th birthday. He was in the 2nd Battalion of the East Yorkshire Regiment, and was based in Richmond, York for his training. He landed on Sword beach at Normandy on 6th June. During the war, he was sent on 3 wireless training courses, and spent 3 weeks in Brussels as part of the training before returning to his battalion. After the war, Bert remained in Germany for 2 years working as a clerk in the army headquarters. Upon returning to England in 1947, Bert completed a teacher training course, and then worked for 9 months in a Catholic school. Later, he and his wife moved to Ireland, where he worked with deaf people.

Barritt died in November 2019 at the age of 94.

Yorkshire School for the Blind
GB0192-443 · Collectivité · 1833-1968

The Yorkshire School for the Blind was founded in 1833 by The Wilberforce Memorial, and was also known as The Wilberforce School for the Blind.

The school was situated at the King's Manor in the city centre, which had formerly been the home of the abbot of St. Mary's Abbey. King's Manor was originally built from 1483 until 1502 and is today part of York University.

Yorkshire School for the Blind operated from the Kings Manor site until it was finally closed in 1968.

Haxby Town Council
GB0192-444 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

Haxby Town Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish/Town Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes.

York Association of Women Graduates
GB0192-445 · Collectivité · 1983 - 2012

The York Association of Women Graduates was originally part of the British Federation of Women Graduates, but York members decided to become independent. This resolution was subsequently agreed and the York Association of Women Graduates (YAWG) was formed. YAWG ceased activity in September 2012 due to a dwindling membership.

Acomb Local History Group
GB0192-447 · Collectivité · 2000-Present

In 2000 Geoff Hodgson, a well-known and respected local historian, who was regularly conducting historical walks around the village, was asked to form a Group and appointed Dorothy Holdsworth as Secretary. Acomb Local History Group formed part of a wider network of groups formed through York Central Library. Dorothy Holdsworth and Kay Naisbitt promoted the Group and delivered hundreds of leaflets. They were also joined by John Terry. Geoff Hodgson died on 20th February 2004, however the Group continues with a membership of over 160.

The Sayer Light Orchestra
GB0192-449 · Collectivité · 1920-Present

The Sayer Orchestra was founded in 1920 by Charles Sayer, a local York Cellist. The Orchestra now has it's own library of largely donated musical works compiled by former conductor Alexander 'Sandy' Richardson. The Orchestra continued with a membership of around 20 string and woodwind players.

Wares Solicitors Company
GB0192-450 · Collectivité · 1812-present

The original founder of the company, John Brook, became a qualified solicitor in 1791 and he established his first partnership in 1812 with George Bulmer. The firm became known as Brook & Bulmer with their office based in Goodramgate, but later in new, larger premises in New Street.
Bulmer retired in 1833, and Brook's godson, Henry John Ware, became his partner in 1845. The Ware connection continued until 1966, when Innes Ware retired. The firm is now known as Ware & Kay Solicitors Ltd, and the Kay component traces back to Robert Newbald Kay, who became a solicitor in 1893, and whose great grandson, Peter Kay, is a senior partner at the firm today. They now have offices in both York and Wetherby.

Redfearn National Glass Ltd.
GB0192-451 · Collectivité · 1967-1984

In September 1967, Redfearn Brothers Limited of Barnsley merged with National Glass Works (York) Ltd. The company was named Redfearn National Glass Limited.
See Also - National Glass Works (York) Ltd.
See Also - Redfearn Bros. Limited

Redfearn Bros. Limited
GB0192-452 · Collectivité · 1862-1967

In 1862, brothers Joshua Redfearn and Samuel Redfearn went into partnership to form Redfearn Brothers' glass container manufacturing business in Barnsley at the Old Mill Factory. Semi-automatic machines were introdyced in 1910 and by 1925 completly automatic bottle-making machines were in use. After the Second World War, the need for modernisation meant that a new factory was built at Monk Bretton in 1947.
See Also - Redfearn National Glass Ltd.

National Glass Works (York) Ltd.
GB0192-453 · Collectivité · 1930-1967

In 1794 the Fishergate Glassworks was formed by a York jeweller, John Prince who promoted his business until his death in 1818. The site was taken over by the York Flint Glass Company in 1835 by Chemist Joseph Spence specialising in medical and pharmaceutical wares. In 1930 the site was purchased by the National Glass Company who produced bottles on automated machines. Increased post-war production led to the building of a warehouse complex in Tadcaster in 1963.
See Also - Redfearn National Glass Ltd.

York Refugee Committee
GB0192-454 · Collectivité · 1938-1945

The York Refugee Committee was formed in November 1938 and appears to have disbanded in 1945. The Committee was affiliated to the Co-ordinating Committee for Refugees. Dr. H.N. Bate, the Dean of York was the Chairman, while Mrs V.B. Ditcham and Mrs G.S. Crossley acted as joint secretaries. C.J. Rowntree was Secretary for Mens' and Boys' Employment, while Mrs. G. W. Johnson was Secretary for Domestic Employment. Mrs J.A. Hughes was Hospitality Secretary.

York Subscription Library
GB0192-457 · Collectivité · 1794-1917

The York subscription library was originally founded in 1794 as a type of book club. It consisted of a group of friends and acquaintances who met monthly to buy and exchange books. Once the books were no longer circulating amongst the membership, they were sold by annual auction. The initial promoters of the library were Reverend Charles Wellbeloved, a Unitarian minister, Sir William Strickland, Mr S W Nichol and Mr Anthony Thorpe. The Club was initially based at the house of Reverend Wellbeloved, who was also a founder of the York Philosophical Society and the York Mechanics' Institute, and books were distributed from there. The initial club was not particularly well received, and by 1796 it only had 12 members.

On 6 April 1796 the Subscription Library Society was reconstituted, and from this point meetings were held in the premises of the bookseller Edward Peck on Low Ousegate. The membership then began to increase. The following year the assets of the group were moved to the first floor of the premises of the private circulating library run by booksellers J Todd, H Sotheran, W Tesseyman and Mr Wolstenholme. Despite fears over opposition from the booksellers, the collection grew and was moved to the home of Mr Wolstenholme on the Petergate side of the Minster. In this location the collection flourished, and by February 1811 it was agreed that the library needed a premises of its own, as the existing site was so overcrowded it was becoming 'dangerous to the library and its members.'

Shortly after the decision was taking to purchase a site, the library members purchased an old building from the York Corporation, on the corner of Lendal and St Helen's Square, with money obtained through the selling of shares in the library to members. At this time the membership numbered around 200 people. The foundation stone for the new red-bricked building was laid on 4 November 1811, with the building being completed by the end of the following year. The new premises comprised space for the library collection on the upper floor, with a reading room for members on the ground floor. By 1825 the library membership had increased to 487, and new larger premises were again required.

In 1835 the library moved into the corner property on the crescent of St Leonard's Place, following negotiations with City of York Council. The move was part funded by the sale of the St Helen's Square building to Yorkshire Insurance Company.

In its new location the library flourished, and it contained many valuable works of reference. The annual subscription was £1 6s - 6d a week - a remained at this level for over a century. An entrance charge of five guineas was also charged, later raised to ten guineas for proprietary members. These members were regarded to be owners of the collection and held transferable tickets. The management of the library remained in the hands of those members who attended the monthly meetings, although in later years a small committee was formed to represent the rights of members. By 1844 the library had 20,000 volumes in its collection.

Membership of the library started to decline in the later 1840s, and by 1877 there were only 284 members. The failure of the movement to provide a free public library, however, boosted membership again and by 1893 numbers had increased to 366. The arrival of the Public Library in 1893, however, provided a setback for the Subscription Library, and by the time it celebrated its centenary the following year, it launched an appeal for additional funds. Frequent calls for additional members and increases to the annual subscription continued into the early twentieth century. The popularity of the subscription library continued to decline and in 1917 the Society was in such dire financial straits that it sold its assets to the City of York Council, who acquired them for £500 (the outstanding debts of the organisation). The library stock of almost 40,000 volumes contained many valuable works of reference and as a result the City Library collections were further enriched by the acquisition.
Folded in 1917 due to outstanding debts due to the City Council. Its assets were acquired by the council in lieu of the debt and went to form part of the Public Library collections, although there was no continuity of operations between the two organisations.
See Also - York Public Library
See Also - York Public Library

York Mechanics' Institution
GB0192-458 · Collectivité · 1827-1892

The first public meeting of the promoters of the 'York Mechanics Institution' took place on 21 June 1827 at the Red Lion Inn, Monkgate. The reason for the foundation of the institution was so that 'an Institute be formed in York for the diffusion of useful knowledge amongst the middle and working classes of society.' A committee was formed with the task of finding suitable premises for the library and to arrange a lecture programme for members.

In its early years the library was situated in a small room in Bedern, and by 1843 it had 1,500 volumes in its library. In 1846 the library moved to new premises in St Saviourgate, and remained at this site until its purpose built premises in Clifford Street were completed in 1885. The foundation stone of the latter building was laid by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII).

The activities of the Institution included classes in art and science, an evening continuation school, lectures and a gymnasium, as well as a library and news room, but the library was the most popular department. The Institution's income was raised from subscriptions, fees and charges for activities or the letting of rooms. Unfortunately, the move to the Clifford Street premises did not increase public support for the Institution by as much as had been expected. The Secretary, Arthur Furnish, found that the Institution was in serious debt through its building fund, but still strived to make it a success.

In 1887, Queen Victoria's Jubilee year, York first suggested the idea of a free public library. The discussions which took place caused a reduction in the number of subscriptions to the Institution and discouraged further donations to the building fund. Despite this, in that year the library had a collection of 10,000 volumes and in the previous year had issued 33,449 books. When the public library suggestion was eventually shelved, the Institution had a new lease of life and membership once again began to increase. Funds, however, were still low and there were regular appeals for additional donations.

In 1891 City of York Council founded a Technical School in the city, which marked the end of the school at the Mechanics' Institution. The committee opened negotiations with the council and agreed to hand over the Clifford Street building for the sum of £4,100, the value of the library's outstanding debt. The council initially took over the instruction classes and leased the library, news room and central hall back to the Institution, however when it adopted the Public Libraries Act in 1892, the leased facilities were absorbed into the council function. The Library and its fittings were handed over to the council along with around 6,000 of the Institution's books. The Secretary, Arthur Furnish, also became the first City Librarian at the new public library.
Folded in 1891 due to outstanding debts due to the City Council. Its building and assets were acquired by the council in lieu of the debt and in 1893 went to form part of the Public Library collections, although there was no continuity of operations between the two organisations. The Clifford Street premises became the first premises of the new Public Library.

York Public Library
GB0192-459 · Collectivité · 1893-2014

The first Public Libraries Act was passed in 1850 and was the result of a movement looking to form libraries which were freely open to everyone. After much opposition this first Act was only applicable to towns in excess of 10,000 people and it did not provide for the purchase of books. A further Act in 1855 resolved some of the limitations of the first one, and as a result more towns began to open their own free libraries. The method of adopting the Act was to be by a poll of the city ratepayers. It took until 1891 for York to gain approval from the city ratepayers, by which time 169 towns had established 'free libraries'.

On 1 September 1891, the York Corporation took over possession of the former subscription library building in Clifford Street. After two years of conversion work, overseen by the first librarian Mr Arthur H Furnish (the former Subscription Library Chief Librarian), the new Public Library was officially opened on 5 October 1893 by HRH The Duke of York (later King George V).

At the time of opening the stock of the library was 10,417 volumes, including volumes obtained from both the former York Mechanics Institution and the Subscription Library. On 1 January 1895 the library opened its magazine room to try and relieve overcrowding in the news room. Formation of the Reference Library was also at this point underway, with 2,269 books being set aside to form the core collection.

During the First World War soldiers were initially billeted in the basement and on the stairs of the library building, and once they left heavy machinery was installed instead. The war also saw the employment of female assistants for the first time.

In 1913 the Library Committee had been considering that the building was inadequate and approaches were made to the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. After preliminary negotiations, a formal request was made to the Trust in 1915, and following investigations, an offer of £12,000 was made on 29 February 1916. The Trust added, however, that any building work should not commence until after the war. A site had been acquired in Museum Street, and Messrs Brierley and Rutherford, architects, were employed to design the building. When work commenced after the war, the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust revised its offer to £13,200, however even then a loan was needed to complete the project.

The first portion of the building, containing the central block and one wing, was officially opened on 23 September 1927 by the Earl of Elgin, and cost £24,500. In 1934 a further portion of the building was erected, before the building was finally completed in 1938. The completed building was opened by Sir John A R Marriott MA on 26 October 1938.

On 1 April 1937 the City boundaries were extended to include Acomb and Dringhouses, and the Public Library acquired its first local branch libraries as a result. In July 1937 a book service was also introduced one day per week from the Social Hall on the Huntington Road Estate.

On the outbreak of war in September 1939, the News Room and Magazine Room at the Central Library were taken over by the Civil Defence Authority as the headquarters of the WVS, and in the following month the Hunt Room and the basement were commandeered by the Ministry of Food for the local Food Control Office. Following the Baedeker Air Raid on York in April 1942, the building was used for a fortnight as the Central Administrative and Information Centre for relief purposes. During the first week of this work library activities were completely suspended, and staff were seconded to help the thousands of people requiring assistance.

During the 1940s a new site was acquired for Acomb Library, and the new City Information Bureau, which had split from the Reference Library to handle 'quick reference' enquiries from personal and business interests was formed.

Towards the end of 1957 the Civic Records were transferred from the Guildhall to the Library and a full time archivist was appointed to administer this collection and other archival material relating to the city. Further alterations to the building were also seen in the 1960s, with the expansion of the Readers' advisory service and the addition of a gramophone record collection in 1968.

Plans for a new branch library at Tang Hall were drawn up in 1960, although delays meant that the building was not officially opened until 29 November 1962. Dringhouses library also underwent structural work in 1961, including the addition of a workroom, and by 1967 began opening on a full time basis. The following year permission was granted to build a new purpose-built library at Acomb, replacing the temporary structure on the same site.

The library service in York continued to expand, and by 2014 the service it included the main central library and 14 branch libraries across the city. The service also currently has two reading cafes and one mobile branch library.

On 1 May 2014 the library service of City of York Council 'spun out' from the main council as a not-for profit Industrial and Provident Mutual Society called 'Explore York Libraries and Archives.'
See Also - York Subscription Library

City Accountant
GB0192-46 · Collectivité · 1884-twentieth century

In the 1880s the corporation's entire financial system was audited by a Bradford accountancy firm, Colefax and Hamer, who produced a confidential report for the Audit and Investigation Committee. They found severe deficiencies in almost all areas of book keeping and one of many recommendations was the appointment of a professional city accountant. This post was created in 1884 and lasted until 1905 after which the duties went back to the City Treasurer. By 1958 (at the latest) there was once more a separate post, Chief Accountant, who worked under the City Treasurer.
Functions gained from City Treasurer in 1884. Functions transferred to City Treasurer in 1905. Functions delegated by City Treasurer (mid twentieth century)

Allen; family
GB0192-460 · Famille · 1770 - 1833

Samuel and Mary Allen had seven children, five of whom were boys. Four of the latter became ordained ministers in the Church of England, and it is this factor which gives a distinctive character to the archive, which spans the period 1800 to 1880. Samuel James Allen (1797-1856), the eldest son was vicar of Easingwold, North Yorkshire from 1839 until his death, thus creating a local connection. He was an artist of marked ability with a passion for what he described as 'Archaeomania'. There is little information about Robert (1800-42), a merchant seaman until his premature death from cholera aboard ship in the Bay of Calcutta. George (1806-68) was also ordained and spent time as a missionary in India, while Isaac (1808-55) followed a similar career, distinguishing himself as one of the first army chaplains to serve in Afghanistan.

Two of Samuel James Allen's children have a special significance in the archive. George Samuel (1832-1902), like his father, was ordained and spent some of the later years of his ministry near York (in the parish of Kirkby Wharfe, Tadcaster). He also inherited his father's artistic abilities, working in a similar style and with the same kind of subject-matter. Samuel's youngest child Lucy (1836-1911) also has a local connection: in 1857, she married Joseph Foxley, at the time chaplain to the Archbishop of York and subsequently vicar of Market Weighton.

Burnholm Social Club, Heworth, York
GB0192-461 · Collectivité · 1880-2013

Burnholm Social Club was built by W G Penty in 1880 for the Former Lord Mayor of York John Bellerby. In around 1930 a speedway track was built on part of the estate, but only remained for a couple of years. Surrounding housing on Burnholme Ave were built during the 1930s. The Social Club still continued today but has since moved to a new purpose built building in the same area.

York Health Food Store
GB0192-462 · Collectivité · 1950s-c1990

The Health Food Store was originally called Wylie, Barr & Ross and was managed by Laura E Haw. It first opened in 1938 at 8 Gillygate. It is believed to be the first health food store in York. It is first listed in the York Directories in 1939. Laura Haw married James Tarrant in 1950 , and they continued to run the shop together. After Laura's death , James Tarrant continued to run the shop until it closed in 1986. The store is listed in Trade Directories under various descriptions - a 'health food store', a 'vegetarian store' and a 'retail grocers'. It remained on Gillygate until c1956/1957, when it moved to 11 Davygate. It moved again to 1Blake Street in February 1968, taking over the premises previously occupied by W. Kettlestring, grocer & florist. The store closed in around August 1986. The premises was purchased by Mannion & Co., grocers. Mannion's were fruit and vegetable specialists, and the family had traded on York market for more than 70 years by 1986 (c1916). Mannion's still occupy the premises today, but it operates as an upmarket deli/café.

Company of Cordwainers, City of York
GB0192-463 · Collectivité · 1977 - present

The Company of Cordwainers was initially founded in the Medieval period (or perhaps earlier) and is one of seven guilds still in existence in York today. Cordwainers were shoemakers, and the Company had influence over York's governance, trade standards and religious events. The Company disbanded in 1808, but was re-established in 1977.

York Assembly Rooms
GB0192-464 · Collectivité · 1732 - 1925

Building work began on the Assembly Rooms in 1730 and was completed by 1735. However, they were first used in the summer of 1732 for Ebor Race week. The Assembly Rooms have since undergone alterations. For example, a new entrance front was designed by J. P. Pritchett in 1828. The Assembly Rooms were purchased by York Corporation in 1925.

Clifton Without Parish Council
GB0192-465 · Collectivité · 1894-present

Clifton Without Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. Clifton Without officially became part of York Unitary Authority in 1996.

Dunnington Parish Council
GB0192-466 · Collectivité · 1894-present

Dunnington Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes. At the time of its creation, Dunnington was part of East Riding and officially became part of York Unitary Authority in 1996.

Upper Poppleton Parish Council
GB0192-467 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

The Parish Council represents the local community at council level and is responsible for local matters such as planning applications as well as local facilities including the upkeep of public spaces in the village.

Nether Poppleton Parish Council
GB0192-468 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

The Parish Council represents the local community at council level and is responsible for local matters such as planning applications as well as local facilities including the upkeep of public spaces in the village.

New Earswick Parish Council
GB0192-469 · Collectivité · 1934-present

New Earswick Parish Council was created in 1934. New Earswick officially became part of York Unitary Authority in 1996.

York Quarter Sessions
GB0192-473 · Collectivité · 16th century-1971

Quarter sessions were generally formed from the 16th century onwards. Courts were held four times a year and presided over by the county magistrates. Anyone with a grievance could complain regardless of their social standing. The courts were heard by magistrates and dispensed summary justice (i.e. without a jury). Higher level crimes were heard by the assize courts. Many types of cases were referred to the Police Courts during the 19th century but Quarter Sessions continued to sit as criminal courts for non-capital offences until 1971.

The general records of Quarter Sessions include Sessions Minute Books (the summaries of the events of each session), sessions rolls (the evidence presented for each case) and order books (the decisions of the court on every item of business).
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Magistrates Court
GB0192-474 · Collectivité · 1971-present

Magistrates' courts replaced the Quarter Sessions and Assizes in 1971, and generally deal with the majority of all civil and criminal cases which are the less serious, or 'summary' offences. Previous to 1971 many of these cases would have been heard at the Police Courts. Defendants are tried by a single magistrate or a panel of magistrates rather than a jury.

Examples of the types of cases heard are drunk and disorderly, criminal damage, and common assault.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Petty Sessions
GB0192-475 · Collectivité · 18th century-1971

Petty Sessions were responsible for hearing the less serious criminal offences up until 1971 (when they were replaced by the Magistrates Courts).

The courts were local to an area and heard cases without a jury (summary jurisdiction). The court was presided over by one or more volunteer justices of the peace or stipendiary magistrates (later district judges) who were paid officials. Petty Sessions were the lowest tier in the court system and developed at the beginning of the 18th century to take on some of the work previously undertaken by the Quarter Sessions. From 1848 it became compulsory for some cases to be referred to the Quarter Sessions. The session's work dealt with matters such as minor theft and larceny, assault, drunkenness, bastardy examinations, arbitration and deciding whether to refer a case to the Quarter Sessions. From 1872, they were also responsible for approving licences to sell alcohol in ale houses and public houses.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Police Court
GB0192-476 · Collectivité · 19th century-1971

The Police Court was an earlier form of magistrates court, formed in the 19th century. It dealt with the majority of all civil and criminal cases which were the less serious, or 'summary' offences, in a similar way to the petty sessions. Defendants were tried by a single magistrate or a panel of magistrates rather than a jury. The Police Court had two sittings - one for adults and one for juveniles, and each sitting kept separate records.

Examples of the types of cases heard are drunk and disorderly, criminal damage, and common assault.
See Also - York Subscription Library

Selby Magistrates Court
GB0192-477 · Collectivité · 1974-2013

Selby Magistrates Court was formed on 1 April 1974 following the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972. It heard criminal cases in the Selby area, which would previously have been heard by York Magistrates Court. The court was closed down as part of a cost-cutting measure by the Ministry of Justice on 29 March 2013, with cases from Selby reverting back to York Magistrates Court to be heard.
See Also - York Subscription Library

Rotary Club of York
GB0192-479 · Collectivité · 1921-present

The Rotary Club of York was founded on 12th January 1921, with a preliminary meeting at the Mansion House. This was followed by an inaugural meeting on 4th February 1921. York became the 36th club in the British Association of Rotary Clubs. The initial President was the Lord Mayor of York, Alderman Edward Walker.

The original structure of the club, which is largely similar to the structure today, was one of committees, including membership, proceedings (speakers), fraternal and social (fellowship), civil (community service), and education (foundation).

Over the years, the community engagement activity of the club has become more diverse, and social activities widened. Tom Shouksmith, a keen golfer, organised a number of annual visits to golf clubs throughout Yorkshire and following his Presidential year in 1933/4 presented a trophy to be played for annually on these visits. The same format was followed until the late seventies, when it was changed to a knockout competition, which now attracts around thirty entrants every year.

The Club was involved in the formation of several other Rotary Clubs, including the Thirsk Club in 1934, the Malton & Norton Club in 1946, the York Ainsty Club in 1960 and the York Vikings Club in 1979.

International links have been established with the Rotary Clubs of Aubusson in France, Erlangen in Germany, and Gorinchem in Holland with reciprocal visits being made on a regular basis.

Today, the Club is committed to numerous fundraising ventures to support its charitable aims, including the annual York Rotary Dragon Boat Challenge, first held in 2003. This event now takes place each year in early July and annually raises over £70,000 for charity.
Helped found the York Ainsty Rotary Club in 1960 and the York Vikings Club in 1979.
See Also - York Subscription Library

River Foss Society
GB0192-480 · Collectivité · 1973-present

The River Foss Amenity Society was founded on 23rd July 1973 by W K Sessions. The first meeting was held at the Folk Hall, New Earswick, and the group was founded with the aim of focussing attention on practical ways of improving the footpaths and other amenities of the River Foss for the benefit of naturalists, fishermen, ramblers, and local residents.

In 1994 it was agreed to drop the word 'Amenity' from the name, and the society became the River Foss Society.

The Society continues to operate today.
See Also - York Subscription Library

Kingsway Area Residents Association
GB0192-481 · Collectivité · 2007-present

The Kingsway Area Residents Association was formed in 2007 to feed back information to City of York Council about grass roots issues. In particular, it is tasked with feeding back housing concerns, repairs, community issues, environment and crime.
Reports to York Residents' Federation.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Residents' Federation
GB0192-482 · Collectivité · c.2007-present

The York Residents' Federation is a committee formed by the Communities and Neighbourhoods department of City of York Council. It meets at regular intervals to discuss issues and concerns raised by local residents associations.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Settlement Literary Club
GB0192-483 · Collectivité · 1938-1960

The York Settlement Literary Club was set up in 1938 and continued to be a subscription Club until 1960 when it disbanded due to low membership numbers.

YK Soul Music
GB0192-484 · Collectivité · 2005-Present

YK Soul organised soul music events in York as a means of fundraising for local charities. YKSoul as an entity was born in 2002 when two York based Railwaymen and DJs Nick Beilby and Andy Bellwood decided to develop their love of soul music, and in particular Northern Soul, into a soul music collective raising funds for charities. The name was chosen to reflect the code YK of the former British Rail engine sheds in York. The first event in early 2002 was held at City Screen to raise funds for the Teenage Cancer Trust. Demand for YKSoul events grew and in 2005 an All Dayer with over 30 DJs including some National names was held at Yorks' Moat House Hotel. Shortly after this event, Andy Bellwood decided to pursue other opportunities and Nick Beilby took the decision to refocus and reformat YKSoul. Well known local DJ Steve Bradley joined the team as did enthusiastic "soulies" Marie Mortimer and Angela Rennison. Simon Wragg also came on board as VJ ( Video Jockey) and brought a new and high tech dimension of film in still and video formats to the events. Something rarely seen elsewhere. A collective decision was made to support only local charities and over the next eight years with the support of many DJs and fans, more than £60000 was raised.In 2013, all members of YKSoul decided that it was time to have a rest from the demanding schedules of up to five events a year and feel very proud of a job well done. The final event was held in April 2014 at York Guildhall for the York Normandy Veterans. However, it is not the end as at least once a year Nick Beilby, Steve Bradley and Simon Wragg can be seen delivering a YKSoul event to their loyal supporters.

Grand Opera House
GB0192-487 · Collectivité · 1902-present

The Grand Opera House is located in Cumberland Street, York and was originally built in 1868 as a corn exchange and warehouse. It was converted into a theatre at the instruction of owner William Peackock in 1902. The Peacock family continued to own the theatre up until 1945, and staged a variety of different productions, including Music Hall, Pantomime, Variety, Opera, Plays and some of the early silent films.

In 1903 the theatre was renamed the Grand Opera House and Empire, apparently so that smoking would still be allowed in the auditorium (it was not allowed in serious theatres of the time).

The theatre closed in 1956 due to the entertainment tax and the rise of television. It was later purchased in 1958 by a Mr Shepherd, and renamed the S S Empire. Following refurbishment, the space was used for roller skating, dancing, bingo and wrestling. In 1987 the theatre was purchased again and returned to a live theatre.

The theatre was purchased by the Ambassador Theatre Group in November 2009.

Baynes; William (?-?); Mr
GB0192-488 · Personne · ?-?

William Baynes was a resident of York with an interest in meterology. During the course of his life he kept detailed records of York weather patterns.

St Andrew's Society of York
GB0192-489 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

Established in 1894 the St Andrews Society continues today.

GB0192-49 · Collectivité · 1385-20th century

First mentioned in 1385, the recorder was chief legal advisor to the Corporation and a professional lawyer. They were usually chosen by the Corporation but were occasionally royal appointees. The post acquired some of the sheriff's legal functions in 1835.
Acquired some legal functions from Sheriff in 1835.

Rowntree Players
GB0192-490 · Collectivité · 1912-present

'Rowntree Players' is the oldest amateur theatre company in York and one of the oldest in the country. The company was established in 1912 as the 'Cocoa Works Dramatic Society' by workers from the Rowntrees Chocolate factory.

The first performances by the Society were staged in the factory's lecture hall, before moving to the Joseph Rowntree Theatre in 1935. To this day the majority of productions take place in the Joseph Rowntree Theatre.

The company is community-based and includes members of all ages and abilities from all over Yorkshire. It specialises in all genres of theatre productions, although it produced muscials infrequently compared to other types of theatre. The company continues to stage an annual pantomime.

York Civic Trust
GB0192-491 · Collectivité · 1946-present

York Civic Trust was founded in 1946 by four citizens of York who were worried about the potential loss of York's heritage in the post-war 'spirit of renewal.' They formed the Civic Trust with the intention of preserving York's historic buildings, and assisting with improvement schemes for the city's amenities. A fundamental aim was to work with the City Council in York and offer them ideas and assistance.

The Civic Trust periodically makes financial gifts to the city, and past projects have included restoring and gilding the gas lamps around York Minster, installing commemorative plaques in streets, purchasing pictures for the Art Gallery; repaving for St Helen's Square; purchasing new curtains for the Theatre Royal; and purchasing a new robe for the Lord Mayor, through to to a full restoration of the Mansion House (the home of the Lord Mayor of York).

The Trust is also recognised at a national level, and it's report advocating the establishment of conservation areas was directly incorporated into the Civic Amenities Act 1967.

In the mid-1960s York was chosen as one of four historic towns to study the issues of conservation. This report was later to be known as the Esher Report. The Civic Trust supported the City Council with a donation towards the fees involved in the study. The influence of that report was to bring huge benefits to the city and fully justified having participated in Lord Esher's Study.

Arguably the most important project undertaken by the Civic Trust was its restoration of Fairfax House, to provide a home for the furniture collection of Noel Terry. The house opened in 1984, and although sold by the Civic Trust to the York Conservation Trust in 2008, it continues to be one of York's important visitor attractions.

The Trust runs programmes of events, visits and lectures designed to enhance members' appreciation of the city and the nearby countryside. It also hosts a programme of education for younger residents and students.

York Georgian Society
GB0192-492 · Collectivité · 1939-present

The York Georgian Society was founded in 1939 to promote the preservation and care of Georgian buildings in and around York, while fostering the study and appreciation of them. It is the second oldest society outside London devoted to the Georgian era. The Society's remit extends beyond architecture and the crafts associated with building to include the arts, culture and society of the period from 1660, the year of George I's birth, to 1837, the year of William IV's death.

The Society succeeded in establishing the principle that York's rich heritage of Georgian architecture was worthy of protection and sympathetic maintenance. While no major Georgian buildings in York are now threatened with demolition, the Society is vigilant about matters such as the potential loss of interiors and fittings, the threat posed by ill-considered development, and the negative impact of inappropriate street paving and signage.

The Society organises an annual programme of summer visits to country houses and other Georgian buildings (for members and their guests), and a series of winter lectures (open to all but free to members). The Society's activities are recorded in an illustrated Annual Report distributed to members.

Poppleton Men's Society
GB0192-495 · Collectivité · c.1971-2008

Poppleton Mens Society was formed as a social group for the men of the Poppleton area. It closed in 2008.

Whytehead; Thomas Bowman (1840-1907)
GB0192-496 · Personne · 1840-1907

Thomas Bowman Whytehead was born on 17 April 1840. He was educated at St Peter's School, York, before joining Gray's solicitors in the city, where his father had worked before him. Whytehead did not, however, enjoy the work, and later joined shipping firm Messrs Green and Co in London, with whom he served his apprenticeship. He was subsequently employed by the British India Company, before settling in New Zealand, where he became a journalist with the New Zealand Herald.

In 1870 Whytehead married a daughter of the late Thomas Drought of Plunketstown House, Castledermot, Ireland, in New Zealand, and returned to Britain shortly afterwards. He took up journalism again in York, and spent time as editor of the Yorkshire Gazette until 1886, when he was appointed registrar and chapter clerk to the Dean and Chapter of York.

Whytehead was also a justice of the peace for the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire, and a prominent freemason. He died on 5 September 1907 in Acomb. He left behind his wife, four sons and a four daughters, his fifth son having been killed in the Boer War. .
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

York Railway Institute
GB0192-498 · Collectivité · 1889-present

The York Railway Institute was established in 1889 to provide educational and recreational opportunities for York people. Today has over 3000 members and provides home to a range of activities, including sailing, golf, chess and dominoes.

The mission of the York Railway Institute is to provide great value sport and leisure facilities open to everyone. The Institute also provides a city centre building in Queen Street, York, where people can participate in badminton, squash, judo, table tennis, dance, pilates and yoga. It also has a brass band and a theatre.

Royal Voluntary Service
GB0192-499 · Collectivité · 1938-present

The Royal Voluntary Service was originally founded in 1938 as the Women's Women's Voluntary Services for Air Raid Precautions, and is the largest volunteering organisation in British history.

WVS was initially formed to help recruit women into the ARP movement assisting civilians during and after air raids by providing emergency rest centres, feeding, first aid, and perhaps most famously assisting with the evacuation and billeting of children.

By 1943 the organisation had over one million volunteers and was involved in almost every aspect of wartime life from the collection of salvage to the knitting of socks and gloves for merchant seamen. After the war Royal Voluntary Service transformed to become a leading organisation in the field of social care, pioneering the practices that formed the cornerstone of modern social services.

In 1966 in recognition of the service WVS and its volunteers had given to this country the organisation was granted the honour of adding 'Royal' to its title by Her Majesty the Queen.

In 2013 the organisation changed its name to the Royal Voluntary Service. The RVS is now a major service provider giving practical help, particularly for older people, to enable choice, independence and dignity so people can enjoy an improved quality of life - all with the help of around 35,000 volunteers.

The exact date of foundation for the York branches in unknown.

Common Clerk / Town Clerk
GB0192-50 · Collectivité · 1317-1970s

The first named common clerk was Nicholas Seizevaux in 1317. The name gradually changed over time to town clerk. From 1708 it appears deputies were provided, one of whom, William Giles, restored and catalogued the city archives between 1892-1909. The office became formally full-time in 1886. The name changed in the twentieth century to Chief Executive.
The term "common clerk" was replaced with "town clerk" which was eventually replaced by "chief executive" in the later twentieth century.

Friends of Rowntree Park
GB0192-500 · Collectivité · ?-present

The Friends of Rowntree Park is a community membership organisation which seeks to promote the well-being of Rowntree Park, York. The Friends work to support increased and diverse uses of the park, by all sections of the community. They are consulted by the council on developments and changes within the park, and suggest improvements to the park themselves. They work with the Park Rangers and also run their own activities, which currently include the Very Young Friends of Rowntree Park (for under 5s and their carers).

York Open Planning Forum
GB0192-501 · Collectivité · c.2002-present

The York Open Planning Forum is a community body set up to provide a forum in which planning issues of public concern may be discussed. Their aim is to encourage a better understanding of planning matters as they affect the built and the natural environment of the York local authority area.

It is a forum for discussion, information exchange and consideration of planning matters. Planning Panels and Parish Council Planning Committees are one of the special concerns of the Forum.

The Forum also runs Local List, a citizens-provided list of buildings and structures which have historical or memorable interest in York even though they have not achieved Grade I or II Listed status.

Members of the York Open Planning Forum receive newsletters. Forum meetings are open to anyone interested and speakers include Council officers.

York Association of the National Trust
GB0192-502 · Collectivité · 1970-present

The York Association of the National Trust was founded in 1970. Intially called the York Centre of the National Trust, it became the York Association of the National Trust in 1999. The main objective of the association is to enable members to meet and spend time with people who have similar interests. The Association is affliated to the National Trust in England and Wales, however membership is open to anyone with an interest.

Within the first few years of operation, the Centre formed three sub-committees - the Walks Committee, Programme Committee (organising talks and day trips) and Projects Committee (managing fundraising social events). From the outset the centre included members from througout Yorkshire, but fairly shortly afterwards the members from areas furthest away from York began to form their own centres. The centre ran series of walks and talks for members, as well as holidays, fundraising events and other activities.

One of the founder members of the York Centre, Eva May Johnson, died in July 1992. Whilst she was a resident of Harrogate, she chose to leave a substantial legacy to the York Centre - over £715,000.

The association plans and delivers an annual programme of events for members, and activities are reported in a quarterly members' magazine. It operates as a 'not-for-profit' organisation, and any surplus funds at the end of each financial year are donated to National Trust properties in the area. The association also contributes to many special appeals by the National Trrst.
Affiliated with the National Trust in England and Wales

River Manager, Naburn Lock
GB0192-503 · Collectivité · ?-?

Appointed by York Corporation as Ouse Navigation Trustees.

York Municipal Aerodrome
GB0192-504 · Collectivité · 1936-1955

The airfield was originally founded in 1936 as York Municipal Aerodrome, after an air circus had used the site previously. On 1 September 1939 the site was requisitioned by the RAF for Bomber Command. The site was returned to the York Corporation in 1946 when the airport reopened. However, in 1955 the airfield was closed for good.

Legion of Frontiersmen, York branch
GB0192-505 · Collectivité · c.1906-?

The Legion of Frontiersmen was founded in Britain in 1905 by Roger Pocock, a former constable with the North-West Mounted Police and Boer War veteran. Prompted by fears of an impending invasion of Britain and the Empire, the organisation was founded as a field intelligence corps on a romanticised conception of the 'frontier' and imperial idealism. Headquartered in London, branches of the Legion of Frontiersmen were formed throughout the empire to prepare patriots for war and to foster vigilance in peacetime. Despite persistent efforts, the Legion never achieved much official recognition.

The first known meeting of the York branch of the Legion of Frontiersmen was mentioned in the Yorkshire Post of 3rd December 1906, when it would appear that the branch was in the early stages of being founded. The York branch, also known as a squadron was in existence until at least 1938, as it was mentioned in the newspapers of that year as having taken part in the Military Parade.

Red Cross Penny a Week Fund, York branch
GB0192-507 · Collectivité · 1939-c.1945

When war was declared in September 1939 it was decided to reconstitute the Red Cross & St John Ambulance Joint War Organisation (JWO) as was done during the First World War to ensure efficient and combined use of resources and avoid wasteful duplication. Both organisations were wholly dependent on dedicated volunteers and public fundraising as was their JWO.

The JWO worked to provide assistance to the armed medical corps, supplementary hospital and nursing staff, distribution of medical supplies, assisted Rest Centres & staffed ambulance units as well as providing first aid & training. In addition to their mainstream duties, the JWO also saw to the welfare of prisoners-of-war and their needs according to the Geneva Convention. The Penny-a-Week Fund scheme made a major contribution to the provision of Red Cross food parcels for prisoners-of-war and soldiers serving abroad. This service was vital as much to morale as for their physical wellbeing.

To finance this aspect of their work, the JWO would organise national and local fund-raising schemes across Britain including the Penny-a-Week scheme. As its name suggests, participating workers would have a penny deducted from their weekly pay-packet or money would be collected door to door by local volunteers. After 1943, there was the option of increasing contributions to 2d (2 pence) per week for those who could afford it. In wartime Britain, even one penny still had some spending-power at a time when an average weekly wage was around £10.

Members of the penny a week fund were given metal badges to show their support, whereas volunteers for the scheme and local fund committee members were given enamelled badges showing the crests of the Red Cross and St John's Ambulance.

Arnett's Butchers, Acomb
GB0192-508 · Collectivité · ?-?

Arnett's Butchers were located at 79 Front Street, Acomb, and were a local butchers shop supplying meats to the local area.

GB0192-509 · Collectivité · ?-?

It is not known when precisely the York Railway Lecture and Debating Society was formed, however it was an institution formed for exployees of the railway companies based in York. Members attended meetings and had the option to attend lectures on aspects of railway history. Members could also compete for an annual essay writing competition.

Town Clerk / Chief Executive
GB0192-51 · Collectivité · 1970s-present

In the late twentieth century the town clerk became known as the "Town clerk and chief executive" and then just "chief executive".
Developed from medieval office of town clerk into modern chief executive role as formal head of the hierarchical administration.

Huntington Local History Group
GB0192-510 · Collectivité · ?-present

Huntington Local History Group is a social organisation which meets to research and discuss the history of the Huntington area. As part of their work, they conduct research and face-to-face interviews with members of the public, asking them to record their memories of the area.

Soroptimist International, York branch
GB0192-511 · Collectivité · ?-present

The name Soroptimist was coined from the Latin soror meaning sister, and optima meaning best. Soroptimist is perhaps best interpreted as 'the best for women'. Currently there are around 3,000 clubs across the world.

The first British club was founded in 1921, the same year as the society was inaugurated in the United States. It's purpose was 'to encourage high ethical standards in business and professions; to increase the efficiency of each member by the exchange of ideas and business methods; to stimulate the desire of each member to be of service to her fellows; and to quicken the interest of each member in the public welfare and to co-operate with others in civic, social, and industrial development.'

It is unclear when after 1921 the York club was established, however it had been formed by 1934.

In 1934 the British and European clubs separated from the United States Federation. During the 1930s, many service projects were undertaken including: vocational training for women and children, housing for the disadvantaged, assistance for the sick and disabled, concern for the local area, and caring for refugees.

The governing body of Soroptimist International was founded in 1952.

John Hodgson Charitable Trust
GB0192-512 · Collectivité · c.1891-2009

John Hodgson Charitable Trust was first administered by the Guardians of the York Union (together with a representative appointed by Sheriff Hutton Parish Council from 1891 onwards). In 1924 the constitution of thecommittee was altered when it was decided to adminster the charity by a committee existing of six members of the York Board of Guardians and five Rural District Councillors from the outlying councils situated in the York Union, together with a representative of Sheriff Hutton Parish Council. These members continued in office until the 17th October 1930, when the Charity Commissioners amended the constitution for the regulation of the charity, owing to the operation of the Local Government Act 1929, which dissolved the Board of Guardians.

The charity held £2,500 London and North Eastern Railway Company 4 per cent First Preference Stock, and £2,500 London and North Eastern Railway Company 4 per cent second Guaranteed Stock, bequeathed by the late John Hodgson Esq, a Guardian of the Poor who lived in Strensall, to the Chairman of the York Union, W Surtees Hornby Esq. The income was to be given at the discretion of the Board of Guardians to people in the area living on small incomes, afflicted by illness or without the means of procuring items they needed in times of distress. The stipulation was that these people could not already be receiving poor relief, other than outdoor medical relief, and had to live in the York Union area or the village of Sheriff Hutton. Residents could also be from the areas of Beningborough and Overton, as these villages were in the York Union area at the time of John Hodgson's death in 1890.

The charity was finally wound-up in 2009.

York Association of Voluntary Guides
GB0192-513 · Collectivité · 1951-present

The York Association of Voluntary Guides was founded by City of York Council in 1951, after York was chosen to host a series of events and festivals to coincide with the Festival of Britain. The team of volunteers was formed to show visitors to the city around, tell them about the history of the city and recommend other places to go to.

The association continues today and is now independent of City of York Council. It has a team of over 80 trained guides providing regular walking tours of the city and its historic buildings.

Woodthorpe Residents Association
GB0192-515 · Collectivité · 1971-2004

The Woodthorpe Residents Association was formed in 2007 to feed back information to City of York Council about grass roots issues. In particular, it is tasked with feeding back housing concerns, repairs, community issues, environment and crime.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York City Mission
GB0192-516 · Collectivité · ?-?

The York City Mission was formed to promote knowledge of the Bible amongst the poorer classes of York, without any reference to particular denominations or the government of Christian churches. It also recommended sanitary improvements in the houses of poor families.

The mission employed its own staff to carry out the work, who were each assigned a district. Missionaries were responsible for reading the scriptures to people, engaging them in religious conversation, promoting observation of the Sabbath, and attending public worship. They were also responsible for handing out copies of the scriptures to the people in their areas.

The City Mission was administered by a committee, consisting of an equal number of members from the Established Church and of Dissenters. The mission also had a number of Examiners of Missionaries, consisting of an equal number of clergymen and dissenting ministers. The mission also recruited members who were willing to pay an annual subscription to support the work of the organisation.

Lemare; Iris Margaret Elsie (1902-1997)
GB0192-517 · Personne · 1902-1997

Iris Lemare was born in London on 27 September 1902, the daughter of organist Edwin Lemare. Iris went to Bedales and then Geneva to dstudy at the Dalcroze / Eurythmics School. She went on to story the organ under George Thalben-Ball at the Royal College of Music in London, where she won the Dove Prize. She also entered the conducting class of Malcolm Sargent.

In 1931, Lemare started concerts with Elisabeth Lutyens and violinist Anne Macnaghten. She conducted several of Benjamin Britten's early works, including the premiere of his Sinfonietta opus I and later his choral 'A Boy was Born'. She also premiered several works by Alan Rawsthorne, Christian Darnton, Elizabeth Maconchy amongst others. Overall the concerts premiered over 40 new works, many of them by women.

In 1937, Lemare became the first woman to conduct the BBC Symphony Orchestra, and during her career she also conducted the Oxford Chamber Orchestra and the Carlyle Singers. She loved opera and conducted Handel's Xerxes amongst other works in the late 1930s at Pollards, a house in Essex belonging to the Howard family.

During the Second World War she founded the Lemare Orchestra. She featured many new or little-known works and her soloists included Joan Hammond, Benno Moiseivitch, Geza Anda, Peter Donohoe and many others. In the 1970s she worked in opera and presented works by Menotti, Maconchy and Britten, and the premiere of John McCabe's The Play of Mother Courage.

Following her 81st birthday she was invited by the BBC Singers to conduct a 50th anniversary performance of Britten's 'A Boy was Born'.

Aside from her working life, Lemare was a keen walker, bird-watcher, swimmer and skier. She died on 23 April 1997 at Askham Bryan near York.

Leeman; Philip (c.1934-2016)
GB0192-518 · Personne · c.1934-2016

Philip Leeman was born in Nunnery Lane, York, in around 1934. He was also educated in the city, and following National Service in the RAF he worked as an administrator in the Yorkshire Herald offices. He was particularly attracted to history, and was a founder member of Clements Hall Local History Group.

He had a keen interest in classical music, and attended music nights at Guppy's on a regular basis.

He died in York on 24 May 2016.

York Musical Society
GB0192-519 · Collectivité · 1767-present

The York Musical Society was founded in around 1767 by several York musicians including the Organist of York Minster John Camidge (1734-1803). It is the oldest musical society in England. Originally the society was quite exclusive, being limited to sixty members and was more concerned with instrumental music. The original YMS was hostile to any public awareness, and still more scrutiny, of its activities. However during the nineteenth century the YMS relented a little on this policy. Women were admitted to its anniversary concert from 1826 and members were involved in music festivals in York in 1791, 1823, 1825, 1828 and 1845. The Society also publicly sponsored at least one choral concert in 1832.

It is unknown whether the original York Musical Society folded in the early 1850s, and the gap was replaced by the York Amateur Musical Society, or whether there is a direct link between the two (there was certainly a direct connection with some individuals being committee members of both organisations). In 1873 the York Amateur Musical Society agreed to accept vocalists as members and commenced organising public choral concerts.

In 1876 the York Amateur Musical Society was reformed as the York Musical Society. The driving force behind this was the Dean of York, though links with the Minster were otherwise coincidental until 1892 when John Naylor (Minster organist since 1883) became the conductor. 'This young society' (to quote the York Herald) presented The Messiah for its first concert in December 1876 with Handel's Acis and Galatea the following April.

At the end of the 19th century it merged with the York Choral Society and with the addition of conductor Thomas Tertius Noble in 1900, membership increased to over 200. It remains a large choir to this day.

City Treasurer
GB0192-52 · Collectivité · 1835-20th century

In 1835 the traditional post of Chamberlain was replaced with that of City Treasurer.
Replaced the Chamberlain when the Corporation was reformed in 1835. Some functions temporarily transferred to a City Accountant 1884-1905.

York Choral Society
GB0192-520 · Collectivité · 1833-c.1895

The York Choral Society was formed in 1833 to provide a more democratic group for music making as opposed to the York Musical Society. They were an amateur group consisting of around 300 members and performed at the Festival Concert Room on Museum Street, York. Practice meetings occurred weekly, and they performed four concerts per year. Members included the Archbishop of York and gentry of the city and neighbourhood. It continued until the end of the 19th century when around this time it merged with the York Musical Society.

Ben Johnson
GB0192-522 · Collectivité · 1841-present

Ben Johnson was originally formed in 1841, when Hull printer William Goddard and businessman John William Lancaster joined forces and set up shop in Bridge Street, York. Seven years later, the partnership was dissolved, but John Lancaster kept the premises. He then employed Ben Johnson, who had served as an apprentice to an engraver in Huddersfield, to take control of his printing and stationery business. By 1880, Johnson was the sole owner and the firm took his name. A factory had been built in Micklegate and was expanded until, in 1907, it covered 75,000 sq ft.

After his death in 1901, Ben's sons, Cecil and Gilbert, took control of the business. In 1932, fire destroyed the mainly wooden factory and new premises were built in Boroughbridge Road.

American firm RR Donnelley's took over the factory in the early 80s, and a ten-year contract began to produce millions of telephone directories for British Telecom.

Castle Area Campaign Group
GB0192-523 · Collectivité · c.1998-2006

The Castle Area Campaign Group was founded in around 2001, as a protest group against City of York Council's proposed Coppergate II development. Had the development gone ahead, it would have been the biggest single development ever undertaken in York, with a footprint 1½ times that of York Minster. The proposal was to convert the car park area close to Clifford's Tower, and a large part of Piccadilly, into residential housing and shop units.

In around 2006 the plans were shelved by City of York Council.

The Ramblers (York Group)
GB0192-524 · Collectivité · 1968-present

The York Group of the Ramblers was formed on 14 October 1968, however there was a longer tradition of protecting footpaths in York going back to the formation of the 'The Association for the Protection of Ancient Footpaths in the vicinity of York'.

One of the founder members of the group, David Nunns, had been active in the Ramblers' West Riding Area, but worked in York. The Ramblers' East Riding Area was very much centred on Hull, with few members in the York area. The Area put on a display in York Central Library for a week, manned by David Rubinstein and others, which was seen by David Nunns.

Local RA Groups had recently been started in various parts of the country and as a result of this meeting the two David's decided to try and form a Local Group in York.

Since its inception, the group has continued to lead walks around York and the surrounding area, and is part of the national Ramblers Association.

York 2000
GB0192-525 · Collectivité · 1971-1986

York 2000 was organised to protest against the building of an inner ring-road around the historic core of the city. It was formally constituted by an agreement dated 4th December 1971 and its purposes were stated to be to oppose the inner ring-road proposals of York City Council and ' work with like-minded citizens of York and others for the proper examination of alternative solutions to the problems of traffic in York.' At the third AGM in 1975 the objects were amended to include the words '...and to co-operate with those in other places facing similar problems.'

It had been recognised since at least the 1930s that York could not accommodate increasing amounts of road traffic without major changes to its existing road system. The principal problems were the Medieval street plan with narrow streets and tight-radiused corners and the fact that all vehicles had to enter the historic core of the city to cross the river Ouse on one of the three bridges existing at that time. Early plans for a ring-road came to a halt on the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1948 an inner ring-road encircling the city was proposed; this plan was not carried out, at least in part because it would have entailed the demolition of all properties between the road and the city walls, an average distance of some 250 yards! However, its legacy was an unspoken belief that that the solution to York's traffic problems was an inner ring-road, running somewhere near to the city walls.

The City Engineer published a report in 1967 recommending the building of an inner ring-road. Acting on this report, the council engaged the firms of R Travis Morgan & Partners and Landscape Use Consultants to design the proposed new road. They reported in 1970 and the council adopted the report. The new road would avoid the historic core of the city but run through the Georgian and Victorian suburbs, requiring the demolition of many old buildings and blighting (in both the technical and ordinary senses of the word) many other premises and communities. Opposition was at first somewhat muted, since, to borrow a phrase from a slightly later period, it was believed that there was no alternative.

York had several conservation and amenity groups with interests in different aspects of the city's heritage. Members of those groups expressed concern about the plans, but no group felt able to take the lead in opposing them as a single issue. Indeed some groups had officially, albeit reluctantly, accepted the notion of an inner ring-road. York 2000 was organised by persons who were already members of amenity groups or who had interests in conservation. An ad hoc protest meeting in September 1971 by inhabitants of the Mount and Clementhorpe areas of York seems to have decided to organise more formally and York 2000 came into being as an unincorporated body formed by a written agreement dated 8th December 1971 to which there are 20 signatories. It grew to have over 9000 members at its peak.

York 2000 did not see itself simply as opposing the inner ring-road. It wanted to make a constructive contribution to the solution of York's traffic problems. From the beginning it sought, and acted on, professional advice as to how to proceed. Planning legislation required a public inquiry and York 2000 was advised that, of the several ways it might object to the proposals, its best option would be to lead evidence at the public inquiry that the council had not fully considered all the alternatives, in particular the active management of traffic. It engaged the firm of Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners as its planning consultants and Professor Alan Proudlove of Liverpool University to advise on traffic issues.

York 2000 raised funds from its membership fees and various activities. The membership fee was set low (10p) to encourage as many people as possible to join and to ensure that the organisation became a mass movement. Inter alia it published a York Cook Book and held an auction. It also received funding from the Joseph Rowntree Memorial Trust in respect of that part of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partner's work which could be published as a report.

In September 1972, before the public inquiry it held a conference, Planning, Participation and Protest, on the topic of how the public could become involved in traffic issues and the planning process. The conference attracted delegates from all parts of the UK.

The public inquiry took place in October 1972. Nathaniel Lichfield and Alan Proudlove gave evidence on behalf of York 2000. The Planning Inspector reported in favour of the inner ring-road but the Secretary of State called-in the report for further consideration. The Secretary of State did not announce his decision until 1975, but, in dismissing York council's application, he substantially upheld the case made on behalf of York 2000.

After the public inquiry closed but before the decision York 2000 produced a publication York 2000 People in Protest telling the story of the formation of the organisation and its work to date.

York 2000 continued its activities in calling for a ban on heavy lorries using the city's roads as a short-cut between North Lincolnshire and Teeside and their re-routeing via existing dual carriageways. It appears to have ceased to be active by the end of the 1970s, as evidenced by the minutes of the AGMs, but there is no evidence that it was formally wound-up.

Two people seem to dominate the history of York 2000: the chairman, David Cummin, and the secretary, Jean Wallace.

Cummin; David (1919-1989)
GB0192-526 · Personne · 1919-1989

After service in RAF Bomber Command in World War II, he read history at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and trained as a teacher at Birmingham University. He was a master at St Peter's School, York, where he held various roles including housemaster and acting headmaster (1978 - 1979 and again 1984 - 1985). He was active in the civic life of the city of York and the county of North Yorkshire, being a Conservative city councillor (1969 - 1972 and 1973 - 1976), chairman of the governors of Clifton Junior School, a Justice of the Peace, and a member of the North Yorkshire Police Authority. He was also a lay reader in the Church of England.

He became chairman of York 2000 at its inception and remained in that post until at least 1986 (the last copy of AGM minutes in the collection) by which time the organisation appears to have been moribund.
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

Wallace; Jean (1920-1989)
GB0192-527 · Personne · 1920-1989

Jean Wallace was daughter of William Wallace, a former chairman of Rowntrees. She was a Quaker, receiving her schooling at the Mount School, York (a Quaker school for girls). She studied business at Edinburgh University and took a Master's degree at York University with a study of alcoholism. She nursed her parents until their deaths. She became involved in a number of local and national groups interested in heritage and conservation including York Civic Trust, Priory Street Community council, York Archaeological Trust, Council for Voluntary Service and the York branch of the Council for the Preservation of Rural England. She was chairman of the York Group for the Promotion of Planning.

She became secretary of York 2000 on its formation and remained in that position until at least the early 1980s.
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

Banks' Music Room
GB0192-528 · Collectivité · 1756-present

Banks' Music Room is thought to be the United Kingdom's oldest retailer, and was opened by Thomas Haxby on 15 June 1756 in Blake Street, York. Haxby built up an impressive retail business, and at the same time developed a business manufacturing and repairing instruments. In 1788, Haxby sold the retail business to Samuel Knapton, a hairdresser and cellist, and the business moved to alternative premises in Blake Street opposite York's Assembly Rooms. The business later passed to his son Philip, and in 1803 moved to premises in Coney Street.

The Knapton family took the business into the realms of music publishing, and in 1829, the business was transferred to William Hardman. After Hardman's death in 1855, Henry Banks, who had been his assistant for the previous 15 years, took over the business. It is from this point that the current name originates.

In 1855 Banks moved the business to 2 Stonegate, before moving it again in 1904 to 58 Stonegate, a property looking directly onto St Helen's Square. The shop was to remain on this site until 1985, with the business passing through various generations of the Banks family.

In 1985 the business relocated to 18 Lendal, where it continues to trade from today.

Bleasdale's Chemist
GB0192-529 · Collectivité · 1780-1982

John Dales, an alderman of the City of York, founded the firm in 1780. The business passed to James Moore Butterfield and became Butterfield & Clarke in 1838 when he took on Joseph Clarke as his partner. J M Butterfield died in the early 1850s and his share of the business was acquired by William Bleasdale in 1856. The business was established at 23 Colliergate, York. As a result of two fires, in 1863 and 1864 the premises had to be completely rebuilt in 1866. By this time they were operating a drug grinding mill and manufacturing laboratory in addition to a distribution warehouse. Bleasdale became sole proprietor following the deaths of Clarke and Tollinton and the retirement of Bell, and traded under the name of W. Bleasdale & Company until his death in 1888. In 1894 it was converted into a limited liability company Bleasdale Ltd., the employees and customers acquiring the business with Grierson as managing director. The company continued to do well until the National Health Service came into being in 1948. After this, it gradually ran down the manufacturing side of the business and concentrated on the wholesaling operation. In 1982 the company made the decision not to re-register as a public company, and it moved from Colliergate to a warehouse at 2 Birch Park, Huntington Road, York.

Rating and Valuation Committee
GB0192-53 · Collectivité · 1926-1950

In 1926 responsibility for collecting rates and valuing city property was taken away from the Overseers of the Poor and given to the Corporation. This committee was established to carry this out.
Took over function from Overseers of the Poor in 1926.

Bishophill Action Group
GB0192-530 · Collectivité · 1970s-1995

Bishophill Action Group was formed in the 1970s as a protest group against City of York Council proposals for an inner ring road just outside the city walls. The group were against the destruction of properties in the Bishophill area to make way for the road, and protested accordingly. Once the ring road plan was finally settled, the group turned its attention to other issues in the area, including the proposed building of a multi-storey car park, the demolition of properties in Buckingham Street and the renovation of 26-34 Skeldergate.

The group appears to have ceased functioning in 1995.

Juniper Communities Ltd
GB0192-531 · Collectivité · 1974-2002

Juniper Communities Ltd was founded as a charity in 1974, to provide residential care for adults with learning difficulties in the centre of York. The charity operated at least two houses, with specialist staff, in the city, before it was finally wound up in 2002.

Raimes' Chemist
GB0192-532 · Collectivité · ?-?

Raimes was a chemist firm which was based in Micklegate, York. It was definitely operating by 1939.

Cossins; John (1697-1743)
GB0192-533 · Personne · 1697-1743

John Cossins was born in 1697 in Brompton, Yorkshire, the elder son of William Cossins, steward of the Hackness estate. John Cossins first learned the practice of land surveying and drawing in his position as estate map-maker. He went on to create maps of York, Leeds and Scarborough, as well as other areas in Yorkshire, which were paid for by public subscription.

York School of Design
GB0192-534 · Collectivité · 1842-1905

A School of Design was opened in York in 1842 as a branch of the 'Normal School of Design in London' (later the Science and Art Department). William Etty, the York-based celebrated Royal Academy painter was heavily involved in its creation.

The first premises for the school were in Little Blake Street (the building was later demolished in the 1860s to make way for Duncombe Place). The London School supported the York venture with subscriptions and a grant. The school later moved to Minster Yard in 1848.

The average attendance in 1854 was 131, however in 1865 the numbers had declined, especially amongst artisan pupils, after the removal of the grant from London. In 1890 there were 76 day pupils and 124 evening pupils and the premises were described as unfit for teaching. The school then transferred to the north gallery of the Exhibition Buildings in St Leonard's Place, which had been purchased by the York Corporation in 1891.

The School of Design was then joined with the Art School which had been part of the Technical Institute in Clifford Street in 1905, and it moved to the Exhibition Building in 1905. Their combined pupil roll of 435 students were then administered by the city's Education Department.
Joined with the Art School (which had been part of the Technical Institute in Clifford Street) in 1905 to form York School of Art.

York School of Art
GB0192-535 · Collectivité · 1905-1999

York School of Art was formed in 1905 by the merger of York School of Design and the Art School which had formed part of the Technical Institute in Clifford Street. At the time of the merger the schools had a combined roll of 435 pupils, and the new school operated from the Exhibition Buildings in St Leonard's Place.

Extra accommodation was opened in 1906 and over £2000 was spent on adapting the premises to their new role. Two studios were acquired in Marygate in 1949, at which date there were 594 students; 32 of them studying full time.

The School moved out to the new Technical College on Tadcaster Road in around 1972, and became part of the new York College when it was formed in 1999.
Became part of York College in 1999.

Friends of York Art Gallery
GB0192-538 · Collectivité · 1948-present

York Art Gallery reopened in 1948 following the Second World War, when it had been requisitioned by the military. The Gallery had sustained bomb damage in 1942, and it would be more than a decade before the vision of the Director, Hans Hess, his team and volunteers, plus the generosity of benefactors created an Art Gallery of some renown.

The reopening coincided with the foundation of the York Art Collection Society, whose mission was and is today the 'creating of a lively interest in all artistic matters and establishing a fund from which, from time to time, works of permanent value can be acquired for presentation to the Art Gallery'. The Society was later renamed the Friends of York Art Gallery in 1955.

In 1975 the Friends began a programme of tours, talks and outings, which has continued to increase over the years. Alongside this work, the Friends have supported the Art Gallery financially in acquiring a number of works of art for the collections. The Friends fund the annual sponsorship for an MA student (History of Art) at the University of York, Family Saturdays and lectures by visiting artists, such as the annual Centre of Ceramic Art (CoCA) lecture.

The appeal launched in 2012 to raise £70,000 towards the cost of the Art Gallery's Fine Art Store has been the Friends most significant financial contribution, and in 2014 a grant from the Friends helped the Art Gallery purchase two tour audio guide systems, aimed at tour guides taking large grops round the galleries.
Supports the work of York Art Gallery.

St George's cinema
GB0192-539 · Collectivité · 1921-1965

Built beside and behind Fairfax House, a Georgian house built in 1732 for Viscount Fairfax and designed by York architect John Carr, the St. Georges Hall was opened as a cinema on 7 March 1921 with 'Three Men in a Boat'. Seating was provided in stalls and circle levels, with the projection box located at the rear of the stalls, under the circle. The decorative scheme included oak panels on the walls.

The cinema was taken over by the Provincial Cinematograph Theatres chain (PCT) in 1922. In 1928, a Jardin 'straight' 3Manual 27 stops organ was installed. The instrument had previously been installed in the Tivoli Theatre, Strand, London. It was opened by organist Frank Olsen.

In February 1929, PCT were taken over by the Gaumont British Theatres chain. The St. George's Cinema also boasted a large ballroom and cafe, located on the first floor of Fairfax House.

The St. George's Cinema was closed by the Rank Organisation on 6 November 1965 with Elizabeth Taylor in 'Cleopatra'.

York 41 Club
GB0192-540 · Collectivité · 1946-present

41 Club was formed in 1946 to provide a way for members of Round Table to continue their friendships after retirement from Round Table at the then obligatory age of 40.

Round Table was founded in March 1927 by Louis Marchesi. Marchesi was a young Rotarian in Norwich who became aware of the lack of opportunities for the young businessmen of the day to meet and prepare themselves for their responsibilities as senior businessmen in later years. He found himself surrounded by older men, so he started a club for younger men with a maximum age of 40 to give them the right environment to develop their professional and civic skills while assisting the local community, the nation and later the world as a whole.

Round Table was formed after being inspired by a speech by the then Prince of Wales who said 'The young business and professional men of this country must get together round the table, adopt methods that have proved so sound in the past, adapt them to the changing needs of the times and, wherever possible, improve them.' Since that time Round Table has used the motto 'Adopt - Adapt - Improve'.

Originally once a Round Tabler reached 40 years of age he would retire from Round Table and would then become eligible to join 41 Club. In 1998 Round Table changed their retirement age to 45.

41 Club specialises in continuing the friendships made in Round Table. The philosophy of the club is very similar to that of Round Table, but it is often less 'active' and in many cases clubs meet less often. The Club's main purpose is to support Round Table and, if possible, participate in local community service initiatives or charity work. However the 'continued friendship' and 'fellowship' aspect is of great importance. Most clubs meet monthly, often in a public house, golf club or restaurant. Meetings are usually semi-formal with either an activity or a speaker to entertain.

To join 41 Club it was originally a requirement to have been a member of Round Table, however in 1972, the Club decided that prior-membership of a Round Table should no longer be a pre-requisite for entry, and instead that the only criterion should be those qualities which, at a younger age, would have been required for membership of Round table.

41 Club is managed by an elected National Board - consisting of a National President and nine officers with specific responsibilities. In addition there is a National Councillor elected by each of the 24 geographical regions in the country who represent the clubs. The National Councillors and the National Board form the 'National Council' of 41 Club.

There are around 800 41 Clubs in the UK and Eire with a total membership of over 17,000.

41 Club is also an international organisation with 21 countries affiliated to '41 International'. Each country sends representatives to the International AGM and a Half Yearly Meeting - both of which are hosted around the world.

The York branch of the 41 Club was one of the first to be founded in 1946, however the founder members did not apparently wish to be tied to the national rules, so the club did not join the national association which developed.

Surbey; Thomas (?-1703)
GB0192-541 · Personne · ?-1703

Thomas Surbey was a London-based engineer chosen in 1699 by two MPs of the City of York to survey the River Ouse. The purpose of this survey was so that the river could be made more navigable by ships. Surbey began his work on 5 May 1699, accompanied by two gentlemen, John Atty and Benedict Horsley, as well as two watermen, the captain and a boy. Together they made soundings and other observations along the river from York to the Humber and Hull. They returned to York on the 13 May.

Surbey returned to York with a series of recommendations, and began work on drawings plans and sections of the lock and weir, as well as preparing detailed specifications, estimates and a written report. He then presented the report to the City of York Corporation on 23 May 1699. His resulting report, covering 19 folio pages as well as a map or chart of the river, is believed to be one of the earliest practical civil engineering reports in England.
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

York Tradesmen's Cricket Club
GB0192-542 · Collectivité · ?-?

York Tradesmen's Cricket Club was a sports club primarly for members of the York trades. It was operating by the early 20th century, however it's exact foundation date is currently unknown.

York Society of Engineers
GB0192-543 · Collectivité · 1947-present

The York Society of Engineers was founded by Albert Crocker, City Electrical Engineer and Charles Minter OBE, the York City Engineer. As a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers Crocker had been finding travelling to Leeds for meetings inconvenient, and so asked prominent engineers in York whether they would like to set up a local group from various disciplines.

The objects of the Society are to promote and facilitate the dissemination and interchange of information on engineering matters and provide social intercourse between engineering executives. It is one of the few remaining engineering societies in the United Kingdom.

During the winter the Society arranges a series of lectures on engineering topics. During the summer they also plan a series of visits to places of engineering interest.

The society logo was designed and approved in 1963. The emblem includes the natural forces of heat, electricity and water/ The President's badge of office also includes the white rose of Yorkshire to emphasise the association with the City of York.

Tennant; Henry (?-?)
GB0192-544 · Personne · ?-?

Henry Tennant spent his working life on the railways, beginning his career in the 1840s. He was General Manager of the Leeds Thirsk Railway as early as 1849. He later rose to become Chief Accountant of the North Eastern Railway Co, before spending 20 years as the company's General Manager.

Following his retirement in 1891 Tennant was elected a Director of the North Eastern Railway Co, before being elected Chairman in 1905. He was also a Director of the Forth Bridge Company, and played an active share in the construction arrangements, and during his career had a similar role in the Central London Railway. He was also appointed as Arbitrator by the Board of Trade in the purchase of Edinburgh Street Tramways by the Edinburgh Corporation. His award was contested, but upheld by the House of Lords, and he later performed similar duties in Newcastle.

Tennant was appointed by the Irish Secretary to arbitrate on behalf of the Liberal Government in the case of a disputed claim relating to a Light Railway in Ireland. He was also appointed to enquire and advise, along with General Hutchinson and Sir George Nares, as to the proposals for extending assistance to railways in the Highlands for the benefit of crofters and to support the fishing industry.

Henry Tennant was a member of York School Board from its foundation in 1883 through to around 1895, and held the position of Vice-chairman throughout that period. When the Board ceased its functions in 1895 he was accepted as a member of the Education Committee and acted in that capacity for a number of years.

He was also President of the York Liberal Association from 1896 to 1901 and, whilst quiet in his nature, commanded a good deal of political influence.
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

York Wireless Relay Services Ltd
GB0192-545 · Collectivité · c.1931-?

York Wireless Relay Services Ltd was a company formed in the early 1930s to provide wireless telegram services to they city. They operated on the basis of a licence from the General Post Office, and were still in existence in around 1945.