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Royal Voluntary Service
GB0192-499 · Collectivité · 1938-present

The Royal Voluntary Service was originally founded in 1938 as the Women's Women's Voluntary Services for Air Raid Precautions, and is the largest volunteering organisation in British history.

WVS was initially formed to help recruit women into the ARP movement assisting civilians during and after air raids by providing emergency rest centres, feeding, first aid, and perhaps most famously assisting with the evacuation and billeting of children.

By 1943 the organisation had over one million volunteers and was involved in almost every aspect of wartime life from the collection of salvage to the knitting of socks and gloves for merchant seamen. After the war Royal Voluntary Service transformed to become a leading organisation in the field of social care, pioneering the practices that formed the cornerstone of modern social services.

In 1966 in recognition of the service WVS and its volunteers had given to this country the organisation was granted the honour of adding 'Royal' to its title by Her Majesty the Queen.

In 2013 the organisation changed its name to the Royal Voluntary Service. The RVS is now a major service provider giving practical help, particularly for older people, to enable choice, independence and dignity so people can enjoy an improved quality of life - all with the help of around 35,000 volunteers.

The exact date of foundation for the York branches in unknown.

York Railway Institute
GB0192-498 · Collectivité · 1889-present

The York Railway Institute was established in 1889 to provide educational and recreational opportunities for York people. Today has over 3000 members and provides home to a range of activities, including sailing, golf, chess and dominoes.

The mission of the York Railway Institute is to provide great value sport and leisure facilities open to everyone. The Institute also provides a city centre building in Queen Street, York, where people can participate in badminton, squash, judo, table tennis, dance, pilates and yoga. It also has a brass band and a theatre.

Whytehead; Thomas Bowman (1840-1907)
GB0192-496 · Personne · 1840-1907

Thomas Bowman Whytehead was born on 17 April 1840. He was educated at St Peter's School, York, before joining Gray's solicitors in the city, where his father had worked before him. Whytehead did not, however, enjoy the work, and later joined shipping firm Messrs Green and Co in London, with whom he served his apprenticeship. He was subsequently employed by the British India Company, before settling in New Zealand, where he became a journalist with the New Zealand Herald.

In 1870 Whytehead married a daughter of the late Thomas Drought of Plunketstown House, Castledermot, Ireland, in New Zealand, and returned to Britain shortly afterwards. He took up journalism again in York, and spent time as editor of the Yorkshire Gazette until 1886, when he was appointed registrar and chapter clerk to the Dean and Chapter of York.

Whytehead was also a justice of the peace for the North and West Ridings of Yorkshire, and a prominent freemason. He died on 5 September 1907 in Acomb. He left behind his wife, four sons and a four daughters, his fifth son having been killed in the Boer War. .
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

Poppleton Men's Society
GB0192-495 · Collectivité · c.1971-2008

Poppleton Mens Society was formed as a social group for the men of the Poppleton area. It closed in 2008.

York Georgian Society
GB0192-492 · Collectivité · 1939-present

The York Georgian Society was founded in 1939 to promote the preservation and care of Georgian buildings in and around York, while fostering the study and appreciation of them. It is the second oldest society outside London devoted to the Georgian era. The Society's remit extends beyond architecture and the crafts associated with building to include the arts, culture and society of the period from 1660, the year of George I's birth, to 1837, the year of William IV's death.

The Society succeeded in establishing the principle that York's rich heritage of Georgian architecture was worthy of protection and sympathetic maintenance. While no major Georgian buildings in York are now threatened with demolition, the Society is vigilant about matters such as the potential loss of interiors and fittings, the threat posed by ill-considered development, and the negative impact of inappropriate street paving and signage.

The Society organises an annual programme of summer visits to country houses and other Georgian buildings (for members and their guests), and a series of winter lectures (open to all but free to members). The Society's activities are recorded in an illustrated Annual Report distributed to members.

York Civic Trust
GB0192-491 · Collectivité · 1946-present

York Civic Trust was founded in 1946 by four citizens of York who were worried about the potential loss of York's heritage in the post-war 'spirit of renewal.' They formed the Civic Trust with the intention of preserving York's historic buildings, and assisting with improvement schemes for the city's amenities. A fundamental aim was to work with the City Council in York and offer them ideas and assistance.

The Civic Trust periodically makes financial gifts to the city, and past projects have included restoring and gilding the gas lamps around York Minster, installing commemorative plaques in streets, purchasing pictures for the Art Gallery; repaving for St Helen's Square; purchasing new curtains for the Theatre Royal; and purchasing a new robe for the Lord Mayor, through to to a full restoration of the Mansion House (the home of the Lord Mayor of York).

The Trust is also recognised at a national level, and it's report advocating the establishment of conservation areas was directly incorporated into the Civic Amenities Act 1967.

In the mid-1960s York was chosen as one of four historic towns to study the issues of conservation. This report was later to be known as the Esher Report. The Civic Trust supported the City Council with a donation towards the fees involved in the study. The influence of that report was to bring huge benefits to the city and fully justified having participated in Lord Esher's Study.

Arguably the most important project undertaken by the Civic Trust was its restoration of Fairfax House, to provide a home for the furniture collection of Noel Terry. The house opened in 1984, and although sold by the Civic Trust to the York Conservation Trust in 2008, it continues to be one of York's important visitor attractions.

The Trust runs programmes of events, visits and lectures designed to enhance members' appreciation of the city and the nearby countryside. It also hosts a programme of education for younger residents and students.

Rowntree Players
GB0192-490 · Collectivité · 1912-present

'Rowntree Players' is the oldest amateur theatre company in York and one of the oldest in the country. The company was established in 1912 as the 'Cocoa Works Dramatic Society' by workers from the Rowntrees Chocolate factory.

The first performances by the Society were staged in the factory's lecture hall, before moving to the Joseph Rowntree Theatre in 1935. To this day the majority of productions take place in the Joseph Rowntree Theatre.

The company is community-based and includes members of all ages and abilities from all over Yorkshire. It specialises in all genres of theatre productions, although it produced muscials infrequently compared to other types of theatre. The company continues to stage an annual pantomime.

GB0192-49 · Collectivité · 1385-20th century

First mentioned in 1385, the recorder was chief legal advisor to the Corporation and a professional lawyer. They were usually chosen by the Corporation but were occasionally royal appointees. The post acquired some of the sheriff's legal functions in 1835.
Acquired some legal functions from Sheriff in 1835.

St Andrew's Society of York
GB0192-489 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

Established in 1894 the St Andrews Society continues today.

Baynes; William (?-?); Mr
GB0192-488 · Personne · ?-?

William Baynes was a resident of York with an interest in meterology. During the course of his life he kept detailed records of York weather patterns.

Grand Opera House
GB0192-487 · Collectivité · 1902-present

The Grand Opera House is located in Cumberland Street, York and was originally built in 1868 as a corn exchange and warehouse. It was converted into a theatre at the instruction of owner William Peackock in 1902. The Peacock family continued to own the theatre up until 1945, and staged a variety of different productions, including Music Hall, Pantomime, Variety, Opera, Plays and some of the early silent films.

In 1903 the theatre was renamed the Grand Opera House and Empire, apparently so that smoking would still be allowed in the auditorium (it was not allowed in serious theatres of the time).

The theatre closed in 1956 due to the entertainment tax and the rise of television. It was later purchased in 1958 by a Mr Shepherd, and renamed the S S Empire. Following refurbishment, the space was used for roller skating, dancing, bingo and wrestling. In 1987 the theatre was purchased again and returned to a live theatre.

The theatre was purchased by the Ambassador Theatre Group in November 2009.

YK Soul Music
GB0192-484 · Collectivité · 2005-Present

YK Soul organised soul music events in York as a means of fundraising for local charities. YKSoul as an entity was born in 2002 when two York based Railwaymen and DJs Nick Beilby and Andy Bellwood decided to develop their love of soul music, and in particular Northern Soul, into a soul music collective raising funds for charities. The name was chosen to reflect the code YK of the former British Rail engine sheds in York. The first event in early 2002 was held at City Screen to raise funds for the Teenage Cancer Trust. Demand for YKSoul events grew and in 2005 an All Dayer with over 30 DJs including some National names was held at Yorks' Moat House Hotel. Shortly after this event, Andy Bellwood decided to pursue other opportunities and Nick Beilby took the decision to refocus and reformat YKSoul. Well known local DJ Steve Bradley joined the team as did enthusiastic "soulies" Marie Mortimer and Angela Rennison. Simon Wragg also came on board as VJ ( Video Jockey) and brought a new and high tech dimension of film in still and video formats to the events. Something rarely seen elsewhere. A collective decision was made to support only local charities and over the next eight years with the support of many DJs and fans, more than £60000 was raised.In 2013, all members of YKSoul decided that it was time to have a rest from the demanding schedules of up to five events a year and feel very proud of a job well done. The final event was held in April 2014 at York Guildhall for the York Normandy Veterans. However, it is not the end as at least once a year Nick Beilby, Steve Bradley and Simon Wragg can be seen delivering a YKSoul event to their loyal supporters.

York Settlement Literary Club
GB0192-483 · Collectivité · 1938-1960

The York Settlement Literary Club was set up in 1938 and continued to be a subscription Club until 1960 when it disbanded due to low membership numbers.

York Residents' Federation
GB0192-482 · Collectivité · c.2007-present

The York Residents' Federation is a committee formed by the Communities and Neighbourhoods department of City of York Council. It meets at regular intervals to discuss issues and concerns raised by local residents associations.
See Also - York Subscription Library

Kingsway Area Residents Association
GB0192-481 · Collectivité · 2007-present

The Kingsway Area Residents Association was formed in 2007 to feed back information to City of York Council about grass roots issues. In particular, it is tasked with feeding back housing concerns, repairs, community issues, environment and crime.
Reports to York Residents' Federation.
See Also - York Subscription Library

River Foss Society
GB0192-480 · Collectivité · 1973-present

The River Foss Amenity Society was founded on 23rd July 1973 by W K Sessions. The first meeting was held at the Folk Hall, New Earswick, and the group was founded with the aim of focussing attention on practical ways of improving the footpaths and other amenities of the River Foss for the benefit of naturalists, fishermen, ramblers, and local residents.

In 1994 it was agreed to drop the word 'Amenity' from the name, and the society became the River Foss Society.

The Society continues to operate today.
See Also - York Subscription Library

Rotary Club of York
GB0192-479 · Collectivité · 1921-present

The Rotary Club of York was founded on 12th January 1921, with a preliminary meeting at the Mansion House. This was followed by an inaugural meeting on 4th February 1921. York became the 36th club in the British Association of Rotary Clubs. The initial President was the Lord Mayor of York, Alderman Edward Walker.

The original structure of the club, which is largely similar to the structure today, was one of committees, including membership, proceedings (speakers), fraternal and social (fellowship), civil (community service), and education (foundation).

Over the years, the community engagement activity of the club has become more diverse, and social activities widened. Tom Shouksmith, a keen golfer, organised a number of annual visits to golf clubs throughout Yorkshire and following his Presidential year in 1933/4 presented a trophy to be played for annually on these visits. The same format was followed until the late seventies, when it was changed to a knockout competition, which now attracts around thirty entrants every year.

The Club was involved in the formation of several other Rotary Clubs, including the Thirsk Club in 1934, the Malton & Norton Club in 1946, the York Ainsty Club in 1960 and the York Vikings Club in 1979.

International links have been established with the Rotary Clubs of Aubusson in France, Erlangen in Germany, and Gorinchem in Holland with reciprocal visits being made on a regular basis.

Today, the Club is committed to numerous fundraising ventures to support its charitable aims, including the annual York Rotary Dragon Boat Challenge, first held in 2003. This event now takes place each year in early July and annually raises over £70,000 for charity.
Helped found the York Ainsty Rotary Club in 1960 and the York Vikings Club in 1979.
See Also - York Subscription Library

Selby Magistrates Court
GB0192-477 · Collectivité · 1974-2013

Selby Magistrates Court was formed on 1 April 1974 following the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972. It heard criminal cases in the Selby area, which would previously have been heard by York Magistrates Court. The court was closed down as part of a cost-cutting measure by the Ministry of Justice on 29 March 2013, with cases from Selby reverting back to York Magistrates Court to be heard.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Police Court
GB0192-476 · Collectivité · 19th century-1971

The Police Court was an earlier form of magistrates court, formed in the 19th century. It dealt with the majority of all civil and criminal cases which were the less serious, or 'summary' offences, in a similar way to the petty sessions. Defendants were tried by a single magistrate or a panel of magistrates rather than a jury. The Police Court had two sittings - one for adults and one for juveniles, and each sitting kept separate records.

Examples of the types of cases heard are drunk and disorderly, criminal damage, and common assault.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Petty Sessions
GB0192-475 · Collectivité · 18th century-1971

Petty Sessions were responsible for hearing the less serious criminal offences up until 1971 (when they were replaced by the Magistrates Courts).

The courts were local to an area and heard cases without a jury (summary jurisdiction). The court was presided over by one or more volunteer justices of the peace or stipendiary magistrates (later district judges) who were paid officials. Petty Sessions were the lowest tier in the court system and developed at the beginning of the 18th century to take on some of the work previously undertaken by the Quarter Sessions. From 1848 it became compulsory for some cases to be referred to the Quarter Sessions. The session's work dealt with matters such as minor theft and larceny, assault, drunkenness, bastardy examinations, arbitration and deciding whether to refer a case to the Quarter Sessions. From 1872, they were also responsible for approving licences to sell alcohol in ale houses and public houses.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Magistrates Court
GB0192-474 · Collectivité · 1971-present

Magistrates' courts replaced the Quarter Sessions and Assizes in 1971, and generally deal with the majority of all civil and criminal cases which are the less serious, or 'summary' offences. Previous to 1971 many of these cases would have been heard at the Police Courts. Defendants are tried by a single magistrate or a panel of magistrates rather than a jury.

Examples of the types of cases heard are drunk and disorderly, criminal damage, and common assault.
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Quarter Sessions
GB0192-473 · Collectivité · 16th century-1971

Quarter sessions were generally formed from the 16th century onwards. Courts were held four times a year and presided over by the county magistrates. Anyone with a grievance could complain regardless of their social standing. The courts were heard by magistrates and dispensed summary justice (i.e. without a jury). Higher level crimes were heard by the assize courts. Many types of cases were referred to the Police Courts during the 19th century but Quarter Sessions continued to sit as criminal courts for non-capital offences until 1971.

The general records of Quarter Sessions include Sessions Minute Books (the summaries of the events of each session), sessions rolls (the evidence presented for each case) and order books (the decisions of the court on every item of business).
See Also - York Subscription Library

New Earswick Parish Council
GB0192-469 · Collectivité · 1934-present

New Earswick Parish Council was created in 1934. New Earswick officially became part of York Unitary Authority in 1996.

Nether Poppleton Parish Council
GB0192-468 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

The Parish Council represents the local community at council level and is responsible for local matters such as planning applications as well as local facilities including the upkeep of public spaces in the village.

Upper Poppleton Parish Council
GB0192-467 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

The Parish Council represents the local community at council level and is responsible for local matters such as planning applications as well as local facilities including the upkeep of public spaces in the village.

Dunnington Parish Council
GB0192-466 · Collectivité · 1894-present

Dunnington Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes. At the time of its creation, Dunnington was part of East Riding and officially became part of York Unitary Authority in 1996.

Clifton Without Parish Council
GB0192-465 · Collectivité · 1894-present

Clifton Without Parish Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. Clifton Without officially became part of York Unitary Authority in 1996.

York Assembly Rooms
GB0192-464 · Collectivité · 1732 - 1925

Building work began on the Assembly Rooms in 1730 and was completed by 1735. However, they were first used in the summer of 1732 for Ebor Race week. The Assembly Rooms have since undergone alterations. For example, a new entrance front was designed by J. P. Pritchett in 1828. The Assembly Rooms were purchased by York Corporation in 1925.

Company of Cordwainers, City of York
GB0192-463 · Collectivité · 1977 - present

The Company of Cordwainers was initially founded in the Medieval period (or perhaps earlier) and is one of seven guilds still in existence in York today. Cordwainers were shoemakers, and the Company had influence over York's governance, trade standards and religious events. The Company disbanded in 1808, but was re-established in 1977.

York Health Food Store
GB0192-462 · Collectivité · 1950s-c1990

The Health Food Store was originally called Wylie, Barr & Ross and was managed by Laura E Haw. It first opened in 1938 at 8 Gillygate. It is believed to be the first health food store in York. It is first listed in the York Directories in 1939. Laura Haw married James Tarrant in 1950 , and they continued to run the shop together. After Laura's death , James Tarrant continued to run the shop until it closed in 1986. The store is listed in Trade Directories under various descriptions - a 'health food store', a 'vegetarian store' and a 'retail grocers'. It remained on Gillygate until c1956/1957, when it moved to 11 Davygate. It moved again to 1Blake Street in February 1968, taking over the premises previously occupied by W. Kettlestring, grocer & florist. The store closed in around August 1986. The premises was purchased by Mannion & Co., grocers. Mannion's were fruit and vegetable specialists, and the family had traded on York market for more than 70 years by 1986 (c1916). Mannion's still occupy the premises today, but it operates as an upmarket deli/café.

Burnholm Social Club, Heworth, York
GB0192-461 · Collectivité · 1880-2013

Burnholm Social Club was built by W G Penty in 1880 for the Former Lord Mayor of York John Bellerby. In around 1930 a speedway track was built on part of the estate, but only remained for a couple of years. Surrounding housing on Burnholme Ave were built during the 1930s. The Social Club still continued today but has since moved to a new purpose built building in the same area.

Allen; family
GB0192-460 · Famille · 1770 - 1833

Samuel and Mary Allen had seven children, five of whom were boys. Four of the latter became ordained ministers in the Church of England, and it is this factor which gives a distinctive character to the archive, which spans the period 1800 to 1880. Samuel James Allen (1797-1856), the eldest son was vicar of Easingwold, North Yorkshire from 1839 until his death, thus creating a local connection. He was an artist of marked ability with a passion for what he described as 'Archaeomania'. There is little information about Robert (1800-42), a merchant seaman until his premature death from cholera aboard ship in the Bay of Calcutta. George (1806-68) was also ordained and spent time as a missionary in India, while Isaac (1808-55) followed a similar career, distinguishing himself as one of the first army chaplains to serve in Afghanistan.

Two of Samuel James Allen's children have a special significance in the archive. George Samuel (1832-1902), like his father, was ordained and spent some of the later years of his ministry near York (in the parish of Kirkby Wharfe, Tadcaster). He also inherited his father's artistic abilities, working in a similar style and with the same kind of subject-matter. Samuel's youngest child Lucy (1836-1911) also has a local connection: in 1857, she married Joseph Foxley, at the time chaplain to the Archbishop of York and subsequently vicar of Market Weighton.

City Accountant
GB0192-46 · Collectivité · 1884-twentieth century

In the 1880s the corporation's entire financial system was audited by a Bradford accountancy firm, Colefax and Hamer, who produced a confidential report for the Audit and Investigation Committee. They found severe deficiencies in almost all areas of book keeping and one of many recommendations was the appointment of a professional city accountant. This post was created in 1884 and lasted until 1905 after which the duties went back to the City Treasurer. By 1958 (at the latest) there was once more a separate post, Chief Accountant, who worked under the City Treasurer.
Functions gained from City Treasurer in 1884. Functions transferred to City Treasurer in 1905. Functions delegated by City Treasurer (mid twentieth century)

York Public Library
GB0192-459 · Collectivité · 1893-2014

The first Public Libraries Act was passed in 1850 and was the result of a movement looking to form libraries which were freely open to everyone. After much opposition this first Act was only applicable to towns in excess of 10,000 people and it did not provide for the purchase of books. A further Act in 1855 resolved some of the limitations of the first one, and as a result more towns began to open their own free libraries. The method of adopting the Act was to be by a poll of the city ratepayers. It took until 1891 for York to gain approval from the city ratepayers, by which time 169 towns had established 'free libraries'.

On 1 September 1891, the York Corporation took over possession of the former subscription library building in Clifford Street. After two years of conversion work, overseen by the first librarian Mr Arthur H Furnish (the former Subscription Library Chief Librarian), the new Public Library was officially opened on 5 October 1893 by HRH The Duke of York (later King George V).

At the time of opening the stock of the library was 10,417 volumes, including volumes obtained from both the former York Mechanics Institution and the Subscription Library. On 1 January 1895 the library opened its magazine room to try and relieve overcrowding in the news room. Formation of the Reference Library was also at this point underway, with 2,269 books being set aside to form the core collection.

During the First World War soldiers were initially billeted in the basement and on the stairs of the library building, and once they left heavy machinery was installed instead. The war also saw the employment of female assistants for the first time.

In 1913 the Library Committee had been considering that the building was inadequate and approaches were made to the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. After preliminary negotiations, a formal request was made to the Trust in 1915, and following investigations, an offer of £12,000 was made on 29 February 1916. The Trust added, however, that any building work should not commence until after the war. A site had been acquired in Museum Street, and Messrs Brierley and Rutherford, architects, were employed to design the building. When work commenced after the war, the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust revised its offer to £13,200, however even then a loan was needed to complete the project.

The first portion of the building, containing the central block and one wing, was officially opened on 23 September 1927 by the Earl of Elgin, and cost £24,500. In 1934 a further portion of the building was erected, before the building was finally completed in 1938. The completed building was opened by Sir John A R Marriott MA on 26 October 1938.

On 1 April 1937 the City boundaries were extended to include Acomb and Dringhouses, and the Public Library acquired its first local branch libraries as a result. In July 1937 a book service was also introduced one day per week from the Social Hall on the Huntington Road Estate.

On the outbreak of war in September 1939, the News Room and Magazine Room at the Central Library were taken over by the Civil Defence Authority as the headquarters of the WVS, and in the following month the Hunt Room and the basement were commandeered by the Ministry of Food for the local Food Control Office. Following the Baedeker Air Raid on York in April 1942, the building was used for a fortnight as the Central Administrative and Information Centre for relief purposes. During the first week of this work library activities were completely suspended, and staff were seconded to help the thousands of people requiring assistance.

During the 1940s a new site was acquired for Acomb Library, and the new City Information Bureau, which had split from the Reference Library to handle 'quick reference' enquiries from personal and business interests was formed.

Towards the end of 1957 the Civic Records were transferred from the Guildhall to the Library and a full time archivist was appointed to administer this collection and other archival material relating to the city. Further alterations to the building were also seen in the 1960s, with the expansion of the Readers' advisory service and the addition of a gramophone record collection in 1968.

Plans for a new branch library at Tang Hall were drawn up in 1960, although delays meant that the building was not officially opened until 29 November 1962. Dringhouses library also underwent structural work in 1961, including the addition of a workroom, and by 1967 began opening on a full time basis. The following year permission was granted to build a new purpose-built library at Acomb, replacing the temporary structure on the same site.

The library service in York continued to expand, and by 2014 the service it included the main central library and 14 branch libraries across the city. The service also currently has two reading cafes and one mobile branch library.

On 1 May 2014 the library service of City of York Council 'spun out' from the main council as a not-for profit Industrial and Provident Mutual Society called 'Explore York Libraries and Archives.'
See Also - York Subscription Library

York Mechanics' Institution
GB0192-458 · Collectivité · 1827-1892

The first public meeting of the promoters of the 'York Mechanics Institution' took place on 21 June 1827 at the Red Lion Inn, Monkgate. The reason for the foundation of the institution was so that 'an Institute be formed in York for the diffusion of useful knowledge amongst the middle and working classes of society.' A committee was formed with the task of finding suitable premises for the library and to arrange a lecture programme for members.

In its early years the library was situated in a small room in Bedern, and by 1843 it had 1,500 volumes in its library. In 1846 the library moved to new premises in St Saviourgate, and remained at this site until its purpose built premises in Clifford Street were completed in 1885. The foundation stone of the latter building was laid by the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII).

The activities of the Institution included classes in art and science, an evening continuation school, lectures and a gymnasium, as well as a library and news room, but the library was the most popular department. The Institution's income was raised from subscriptions, fees and charges for activities or the letting of rooms. Unfortunately, the move to the Clifford Street premises did not increase public support for the Institution by as much as had been expected. The Secretary, Arthur Furnish, found that the Institution was in serious debt through its building fund, but still strived to make it a success.

In 1887, Queen Victoria's Jubilee year, York first suggested the idea of a free public library. The discussions which took place caused a reduction in the number of subscriptions to the Institution and discouraged further donations to the building fund. Despite this, in that year the library had a collection of 10,000 volumes and in the previous year had issued 33,449 books. When the public library suggestion was eventually shelved, the Institution had a new lease of life and membership once again began to increase. Funds, however, were still low and there were regular appeals for additional donations.

In 1891 City of York Council founded a Technical School in the city, which marked the end of the school at the Mechanics' Institution. The committee opened negotiations with the council and agreed to hand over the Clifford Street building for the sum of £4,100, the value of the library's outstanding debt. The council initially took over the instruction classes and leased the library, news room and central hall back to the Institution, however when it adopted the Public Libraries Act in 1892, the leased facilities were absorbed into the council function. The Library and its fittings were handed over to the council along with around 6,000 of the Institution's books. The Secretary, Arthur Furnish, also became the first City Librarian at the new public library.
Folded in 1891 due to outstanding debts due to the City Council. Its building and assets were acquired by the council in lieu of the debt and in 1893 went to form part of the Public Library collections, although there was no continuity of operations between the two organisations. The Clifford Street premises became the first premises of the new Public Library.

York Subscription Library
GB0192-457 · Collectivité · 1794-1917

The York subscription library was originally founded in 1794 as a type of book club. It consisted of a group of friends and acquaintances who met monthly to buy and exchange books. Once the books were no longer circulating amongst the membership, they were sold by annual auction. The initial promoters of the library were Reverend Charles Wellbeloved, a Unitarian minister, Sir William Strickland, Mr S W Nichol and Mr Anthony Thorpe. The Club was initially based at the house of Reverend Wellbeloved, who was also a founder of the York Philosophical Society and the York Mechanics' Institute, and books were distributed from there. The initial club was not particularly well received, and by 1796 it only had 12 members.

On 6 April 1796 the Subscription Library Society was reconstituted, and from this point meetings were held in the premises of the bookseller Edward Peck on Low Ousegate. The membership then began to increase. The following year the assets of the group were moved to the first floor of the premises of the private circulating library run by booksellers J Todd, H Sotheran, W Tesseyman and Mr Wolstenholme. Despite fears over opposition from the booksellers, the collection grew and was moved to the home of Mr Wolstenholme on the Petergate side of the Minster. In this location the collection flourished, and by February 1811 it was agreed that the library needed a premises of its own, as the existing site was so overcrowded it was becoming 'dangerous to the library and its members.'

Shortly after the decision was taking to purchase a site, the library members purchased an old building from the York Corporation, on the corner of Lendal and St Helen's Square, with money obtained through the selling of shares in the library to members. At this time the membership numbered around 200 people. The foundation stone for the new red-bricked building was laid on 4 November 1811, with the building being completed by the end of the following year. The new premises comprised space for the library collection on the upper floor, with a reading room for members on the ground floor. By 1825 the library membership had increased to 487, and new larger premises were again required.

In 1835 the library moved into the corner property on the crescent of St Leonard's Place, following negotiations with City of York Council. The move was part funded by the sale of the St Helen's Square building to Yorkshire Insurance Company.

In its new location the library flourished, and it contained many valuable works of reference. The annual subscription was £1 6s - 6d a week - a remained at this level for over a century. An entrance charge of five guineas was also charged, later raised to ten guineas for proprietary members. These members were regarded to be owners of the collection and held transferable tickets. The management of the library remained in the hands of those members who attended the monthly meetings, although in later years a small committee was formed to represent the rights of members. By 1844 the library had 20,000 volumes in its collection.

Membership of the library started to decline in the later 1840s, and by 1877 there were only 284 members. The failure of the movement to provide a free public library, however, boosted membership again and by 1893 numbers had increased to 366. The arrival of the Public Library in 1893, however, provided a setback for the Subscription Library, and by the time it celebrated its centenary the following year, it launched an appeal for additional funds. Frequent calls for additional members and increases to the annual subscription continued into the early twentieth century. The popularity of the subscription library continued to decline and in 1917 the Society was in such dire financial straits that it sold its assets to the City of York Council, who acquired them for £500 (the outstanding debts of the organisation). The library stock of almost 40,000 volumes contained many valuable works of reference and as a result the City Library collections were further enriched by the acquisition.
Folded in 1917 due to outstanding debts due to the City Council. Its assets were acquired by the council in lieu of the debt and went to form part of the Public Library collections, although there was no continuity of operations between the two organisations.
See Also - York Public Library
See Also - York Public Library

York Refugee Committee
GB0192-454 · Collectivité · 1938-1945

The York Refugee Committee was formed in November 1938 and appears to have disbanded in 1945. The Committee was affiliated to the Co-ordinating Committee for Refugees. Dr. H.N. Bate, the Dean of York was the Chairman, while Mrs V.B. Ditcham and Mrs G.S. Crossley acted as joint secretaries. C.J. Rowntree was Secretary for Mens' and Boys' Employment, while Mrs. G. W. Johnson was Secretary for Domestic Employment. Mrs J.A. Hughes was Hospitality Secretary.

National Glass Works (York) Ltd.
GB0192-453 · Collectivité · 1930-1967

In 1794 the Fishergate Glassworks was formed by a York jeweller, John Prince who promoted his business until his death in 1818. The site was taken over by the York Flint Glass Company in 1835 by Chemist Joseph Spence specialising in medical and pharmaceutical wares. In 1930 the site was purchased by the National Glass Company who produced bottles on automated machines. Increased post-war production led to the building of a warehouse complex in Tadcaster in 1963.
See Also - Redfearn National Glass Ltd.

Redfearn Bros. Limited
GB0192-452 · Collectivité · 1862-1967

In 1862, brothers Joshua Redfearn and Samuel Redfearn went into partnership to form Redfearn Brothers' glass container manufacturing business in Barnsley at the Old Mill Factory. Semi-automatic machines were introdyced in 1910 and by 1925 completly automatic bottle-making machines were in use. After the Second World War, the need for modernisation meant that a new factory was built at Monk Bretton in 1947.
See Also - Redfearn National Glass Ltd.

Redfearn National Glass Ltd.
GB0192-451 · Collectivité · 1967-1984

In September 1967, Redfearn Brothers Limited of Barnsley merged with National Glass Works (York) Ltd. The company was named Redfearn National Glass Limited.
See Also - National Glass Works (York) Ltd.
See Also - Redfearn Bros. Limited

Wares Solicitors Company
GB0192-450 · Collectivité · 1812-present

The original founder of the company, John Brook, became a qualified solicitor in 1791 and he established his first partnership in 1812 with George Bulmer. The firm became known as Brook & Bulmer with their office based in Goodramgate, but later in new, larger premises in New Street.
Bulmer retired in 1833, and Brook's godson, Henry John Ware, became his partner in 1845. The Ware connection continued until 1966, when Innes Ware retired. The firm is now known as Ware & Kay Solicitors Ltd, and the Kay component traces back to Robert Newbald Kay, who became a solicitor in 1893, and whose great grandson, Peter Kay, is a senior partner at the firm today. They now have offices in both York and Wetherby.

The Sayer Light Orchestra
GB0192-449 · Collectivité · 1920-Present

The Sayer Orchestra was founded in 1920 by Charles Sayer, a local York Cellist. The Orchestra now has it's own library of largely donated musical works compiled by former conductor Alexander 'Sandy' Richardson. The Orchestra continued with a membership of around 20 string and woodwind players.

Acomb Local History Group
GB0192-447 · Collectivité · 2000-Present

In 2000 Geoff Hodgson, a well-known and respected local historian, who was regularly conducting historical walks around the village, was asked to form a Group and appointed Dorothy Holdsworth as Secretary. Acomb Local History Group formed part of a wider network of groups formed through York Central Library. Dorothy Holdsworth and Kay Naisbitt promoted the Group and delivered hundreds of leaflets. They were also joined by John Terry. Geoff Hodgson died on 20th February 2004, however the Group continues with a membership of over 160.

York Association of Women Graduates
GB0192-445 · Collectivité · 1983 - 2012

The York Association of Women Graduates was originally part of the British Federation of Women Graduates, but York members decided to become independent. This resolution was subsequently agreed and the York Association of Women Graduates (YAWG) was formed. YAWG ceased activity in September 2012 due to a dwindling membership.

Haxby Town Council
GB0192-444 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

Haxby Town Council was officially created when the Local Government Act of 1894 formed Parish Councils. The new Parish/Town Councils assumed responsibility for local civic and social welfare which was previously managed through ecclesiastical parishes.

Yorkshire School for the Blind
GB0192-443 · Collectivité · 1833-1968

The Yorkshire School for the Blind was founded in 1833 by The Wilberforce Memorial, and was also known as The Wilberforce School for the Blind.

The school was situated at the King's Manor in the city centre, which had formerly been the home of the abbot of St. Mary's Abbey. King's Manor was originally built from 1483 until 1502 and is today part of York University.

Yorkshire School for the Blind operated from the Kings Manor site until it was finally closed in 1968.

Barritt; Bert (1925-2020); Mr
GB0192-442 · Personne · 1925-2020

Bert joined the army on 1st July 1943 after receiving his conscription letter on his 18th birthday. He was in the 2nd Battalion of the East Yorkshire Regiment, and was based in Richmond, York for his training. He landed on Sword beach at Normandy on 6th June. During the war, he was sent on 3 wireless training courses, and spent 3 weeks in Brussels as part of the training before returning to his battalion. After the war, Bert remained in Germany for 2 years working as a clerk in the army headquarters. Upon returning to England in 1947, Bert completed a teacher training course, and then worked for 9 months in a Catholic school. Later, he and his wife moved to Ireland, where he worked with deaf people.

Barritt died in November 2019 at the age of 94.

York Working-People's Hospital Fund
GB0192-441 · Collectivité · 1901-1935

York Work-People's Hospital Fund was founded by a small number of working men governors on 26th April 1901 to support the Country Hospital. It was diminished in 1935 due to the establishment of the York County and District Hospital Contributory Scheme in 1931.

Meredith; George (1923-2017); Mr
GB0192-440 · Personne · 1923-2017

George Meredith was a Normandy Veteran. He signed up to be in the army at Wicks Cross, London at the age of 17. He was in the Rifle Brigade initially, but was then transferred to the Royal Army Service Corps, where he became a driver, providing fuel and food to the troops. He could not drive prior to the war, but was trained to drive at Darley Dale after signing up. He landed at Normandy on 7th June, and did not return home until 1945.

George Meredith died in York Hospital in 2017 at the age of 92. The announcement of his death was made in York Press on 4 September 2017.

Ebor Cycling Club
GB0192-439 · Collectivité · 1931 -

The Ebor Cycling Club was founded in 1931 with a membership of 18. By 1935, their membership had reached 60.

Hartley; Brian (1929 - 2005); Mr
GB0192-437 · Personne · 1929 - 2005

Brian Hartley was born in 1929, and attended Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1950, where he studied for the Natural Sciences Tripos. He then went on to gain a distinction in the Diploma in Prehistoric Archaeology. He retired from the University of Leeds in 1995, and passed away on 26th April 2005.

Powell Frith; William (1819 - 1909)
GB0192-436 · Personne · 1819 - 1909

William Powell Frith was born in Aldfield, North Yorkshire on 19th January 1819. He moved to London to and began studying art in 1835, and later attended the Royal Academy Schools.

His connection to the Raine family is as follows: Angelo Raine was the great nephew of Frith. Raine was also good friends with Frith's niece, Molly Keyworth (married to Henry Keyworth). It is thought that Molly (daughter of Jane, who is featured in some of the Frith letters in the Raine collection) passed the letters on to Angelo Raine.

GB0192-434 · Personne · 1859-1945

John Arthur Ransome Marriott was born on 17 August 1859 in Bowden, Cheshire, the eldest son of Francis Marriott and his wife Elizabeth. He was educated at Repton School and New College Oxford, graduating with a second class degree in modern history in 1882. He was active in the Canning Club during his undergraduate career.

In 1883 Marriott was appointed as a lecturer at New College, before taking up a position teaching modern history at Worcester College the following year. He continued at Worcester College until 1920, from 1914 onwards as a Fellow of the College, specialising in political and international history. During the course of his career he wrote over 40 books on historical and political subjects.

Marriott's major contribution to education dates from 1886, when he was recruited as an Oxford University extension lecturer by the secretary of the extension delegacy in Oxford, M. E. Sadler. Extension lecturers had been sent out by the university to give academic courses in provincial towns and cities in England since 1878. Marriott was immediately attracted to the work: he was a natural platform orator and able to hold large audiences. Marriott went on to succeed Sadler as head of the extension lectures in 1895.

Marriott had been adopted as a Conservative parliamentary candidate for East St Pancras in 1885, though he subsequently withdrew his candidacy. In the following year he was defeated in the general election as Conservative candidate for Rochdale. In 1914 he was defeated in a contest for the Conservative candidacy for the vacant Oxford University seat in parliament. But in March 1917 he was elected unopposed as Conservative MP for Oxford City, a beneficiary of the party-political truce under the wartime coalition. He was re-elected in the 'coupon' election of 1918, but defeated by the Liberal candidate in the general election of 1922. He returned to the Commons after the general election of 1923 as MP for York. There he was defeated in 1929 by a Labour candidate, and retired from active politics.

Marriott married Henrietta Robinson, daughter of the Reverend W. Percy Robinson, warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond, on 7 April 1891; they had one daughter, Elizabeth Dorothy Cicely (known as Cicely), who was born in 1892. Marriott was knighted in 1924, and he died at the Montpellier Hotel, Llandrinod Wells, on 6 June 1945.

GB0192-433 · Personne · c.1860-1947

Frederick Adolphus Camidge was born in around 1860, the son of William Camidge, Consulting Secretary of York Savings Bank and Methodist preacher. He was educated in Goole, became a solicitor in 1884 and a member of the law society in 1886.

He held positions as clerk to the school boards of Acomb, Haxby, Wigginton and Dringhouses, and was also clerk to the Escrick Rural District Council, Escrick Out-Relief Union and the Escrick Rating Committee.

Frederick Adolphus Camidge became a freeman of York in 1884. He held numerous public offices throughout his lifetime, and held the role of Sheriff of York in 1910-11.

Camidge was a well-known Freemason and was a Past Master of the York Lodge 236 and of the Zetland Chapter. He was also a lay lector at Holy Trinity Church in Micklegate, and had previously been a churchwarden at St Helen's Church.

Frederick Adolphus Camidge died in August 1947 in York.
Frederick Adolphus Camidge was son of William Camidge.

Camidge; William (1828-1909)
GB0192-432 · Personne · 1828-1909

William Camidge was born in St Saviourgate, York in 1828. His father was a freeman of York, Beverley and Hull. He was educated at Houghton School before being apprenticed to a solicitor.

Following his apprenticeship Camidge moved to Pudsey, West Yorkshire, before returning to York to work as managing clerk for Messrs Richardson and Gold, solicitors in Blake Street. He later became an actuary at Yorks Savings Bank before rising to Consulting Secretary, a position which he held for over 50 years. During his leadership the bank increased its customer base by over 2000 people.

William Camidge became a freeman of York in 1849.

Aside from his banking career, Camidge was also a prominent and active Christian. Beginning his religious career as a Sunday School teacher, he went on to found the York Ragged School (where he was also superintendant). He later became superintendant of the Melbourne Terrace School and secretary of the City Mission, as well as being a faithful supporter of the Hungate Mission. He was also a Methodist preacher.

Camidge was also a prolific writer and local historian, and during his lifetime wrote over 100 published works on aspects of York history and the development of Methodism.

William Camidge died on 6 October 1909 in York at the age of 81, a month after resigning from his position at the bank due to ill health.
William Camidge was father of Frederick Adolphus Camidge and grandfather of William Gordon Camidge.

Poppleton History Society
GB0192-430 · Collectivité · 1989-Present

Poppleton History Society was started in February 1989. In 1998, the Society agreed to establish an archaeology section as a five year pilot project for York Archaeological Forum (YAF). Over the following years, the very successful Greater York Community Archaeology project was developed by YAF, with HLF funding for the initial position of Community Archaeologist. A highlight for the Poppleton Archaeology Group was the visit of Channel 4`s Time Team to Nether Poppleton in 2004.

Poppleton History Society
GB0192-430 · Collectivité · 1989 - present

Poppleton History Society was started in February 1989. In 1998, the Society agreed to establish an archaeology section as a five year pilot project for York Archaeological Forum (YAF). Over the following years, the very successful Greater York Community Archaeology project was developed by YAF, with HLF funding for the initial position of Community Archaeologist. A highlight for the Poppleton Archaeology Group was the visit of Channel 4`s Time Team to Nether Poppleton in 2004.

GB0192-428 · Collectivité · 1808 - 1845

The York Society for the Prevention and Discouragement of Vice and Profaneness was established in 1808. The Society started to devote the majority of its fund to the Penitentiary Society from 1822 onwards, and devoted all of its remaining funds to the establishment of the York Penitentiary as an Institution in 1845.

York Penitentiary Society
GB0192-427 · Collectivité · 1822-1953

The York Penitentiary Society was formed in 1822. In 1844, the late Dr Beckwith bequest his property at Bishophill to the York Penitentiary Society, and this was used to form the York Penitentiary Institution in 1845.

A motion was carried at the 1918 annual meeting that the name "Penitentiary Society" was unsuitable for the work of the Society, and "House of Mercy" was deemed more appropriate. In 1918, the Bishophill premises were sold due to their delapidated condition and new premises at Clifton Holme were purchased. These premises later became known as York Training Home for Girls, which was an approved school that operated by rules set out by the Secretary of State.

The Home Office responsibility for Clifton Holme ended on 31st August 1950. Clifton Holme was sold to the Corporation in 1953, and the profits from the sale were used to form the Clifton Holme Trust, the money from which was distributed to various charities.

Hunt; Reginald (1894-1941)
GB0192-425 · Personne · 1894-1941

Reginald Hunt was born in 1894 at 2 Park Grove, York, the only son and middle child of John Henry Hunt and Bertha Mary Hunt. In 1901 the family lived in Spurriergate and by 1911 had moved to 26 Aldwark. Reginald was educated at St Olave's School and from 1904-11 was a day boy at St Peter's School, York. His father - a brewer, and later a Brewers' manager - was a cousin of (the later, Sir) John Joseph Hunt of the John J Hunt Ebor Brewery.

During the First World War Reginald worked as a Voluntary Aid Detachment nurse, first at Nunthorpe Hospital (September 1915 to November 1916) and then at St Mary's Convent Hospital - now York's Bar Convent - from December 1916 to May 1917. In both positions he was required to supervise the hospital orderlies, and he moved from the rank of Private to Lieutenant during that period. His sister Violet also worked as a VAD nurse, at Clifford Street Voluntary Aid Detachment Hospital.

Reginald also entered the brewing profession. In 1921 he received the Freedom of the City of London in the Worshipful Company of Distillers; from 1934-35 he held the office of Master of the Company. He was also onetime President of the Yorkshire Wholesale Wine and Spirit Association. On the death of Sir John Joseph in 1933, Reginald became Chairman of the John J Hunt Ltd and Scarborough & Whitby Breweries.

Grimston Court, Dunnington, designed by Walter Brierley for Sir John Joseph also passed to Reginald; he lived there with his sister Violet until his death in 1941.

Reginald Hunt took an active role in public life in York. From 1934-5 he was Governor of the York Company of Merchant Adventurers; he served on the House Committee of York County Hospital and as a governor of the hospital; from the group's inception he was Chairman of the Supporters of York County Hospital. During the First World War he was actively engaged with the work of the St John's Ambulance Brigade in York. He gave presentation cups to at least two local societies, the York Rowing Club and York Speedway, and was actively involved with many other societies and charitable organisations.

Reginald Hunt died on 29 April 1941, aged 46.
Reginald Hunt had two sisters - May (Mary) Hunt and Violet Hunt.

York Motor Yacht Club
GB0192-424 · Collectivité · 1933-present

The York Motor Boat Club was founded in June 1933 by motor boat enthusiasts who moored along the River Ouse in York. The first President of the Club was Mr B Hudson who purchased the Clubhouse as a Prisoner of War Hospital in Silecroft, Cumbria. The wooden building was brought across to York and erected at Fulford, opening in 1954. The Club changed its name to York Motor Yacht Club in 1968.

Backhouse Nurseries
GB0192-423 · Collectivité · 1815-1955

The business began operating in 1815 when it was purchased from the Telford family by the brothers James and Thomas Backhouse, Quakers in York. James Backhouse had been apprenticed to Wagstaffe's nursery in Norwich for two years when he was 19 years old, and had spent time visiting nurseries in Scotland prior to the purchase. Their purchase of the nursery was advertised in the York Courant on 13 May 1816. By 1821 the Backhouse family were advertising their ability to undertake 'plantations by the acre' and supply 'gentlemen with experienced gardeners.'

The original firm was founded at Tanner Row, Toft Green, in about 1665, and the Backhouse business continued on the same site. In 1831, following the death of his wife, James left England for Australia to undertake Quaker missionary work. He left the business in the care of family members for the following ten years, during which time he sent back an array of plant samples and seeds from his travels.

In 1841 James returned to England and took up the running of the nursery, first with his brother and then with his son. That same year the nursery moved from Toft Green to make way for the new York railway station. The coming of the railways allowed Backhouse Nurseries to distribute correspondence, plants and seeds much more effectively around the country from their new premises in Fishergate. In 1853 the business moved again, this time to a 100 acre site at Holgate, York.

James Backhouse died in 1869 and the business was continued by his son James, who was later joined by his own son, also James. During this period the business was at its height, with a plant import business, rockery, 40 greenhouses and an underground fernery.

The agricultural depression of the 1880s, followed by the 1910 Land Tax bill and the First World War, compounded by increased competition between nurserymen, all contributed to the decline of demand in plants. Despite James Backhouse forming a new company in 1891 to try and save the business - Backhouse Nurseries (York) Ltd - the firm suffered a series of financial losses. In 1921 much of the land owned by the nurseries was sold off, and the business was officially wound-up in 1955.

J W Knowles and Sons
GB0192-422 · Collectivité · c.1861-1970s

The exact start date of the business is unknown but it is thought that it began around 1861.

Widdrington; Thomas (?-1664); Sir
GB0192-421 · Personne · ?-1664

Thomas Widdrington was the son of Lewis Mauntlaine, alias Widdrington of Cheeseburn Grange, near Stamfordham, Northumberland. He was a student at Christ's College, Cambridge in 1617 and was awarded BA in 1621. He entered Gray's Inn in 1619 and was called to the bar in 1625. He held the position of Recorder of Berwick from 1631 to 1658 and Recorder of York from 1638 to 1658. He was knighted at York on 1 April 1639.

In April 1640 Widdrington was elected Member of Parliament for Berwick in the Short Parliament. He was re-elected MP for Berwick for the Long Parliament in November 1640. As a barrister, his legal knowledge was useful during the English Civil War. In 1651 he was chosen a member of the Council of State, although he had declined to have any share in the trial of the king. He was elected MP for York in 1654 for the First Protectorate Parliament. In 1656 he was elected MP for Northumberland in the Second Protectorate Parliament and was chosen as Speaker in September 1656, and in June 1658, he was appointed Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. In 1659 and again in 1660, he was a member of the Council of State, and on three occasions he was one of the Commissioners of the Great Seal. In 1660, he was elected MP for York in the Convention Parliament. He was subsequently elected MP for Berwick again in 1661 for the Cavalier Parliament.

Thomas Widdrington married Frances Fairfax, a daughter of Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Together they had five daughters and a son.

Widdrington wrote 'Analecta Eboracensia; some Remaynes of the city of York'. The work was not formally published until 1877, when it was edited with introduction and notes by the Rev. Caesar Caine.

Thomas Widdrington died in 1664.

Drake; Francis (1696-1771)
GB0192-420 · Personne · 1696-1771

Francis Drake was born in Pontefract, the son of vicar Reverend Francis Drake. He was baptised in Pontefract on 22 January 1696.

Drake was apprenticed to Christopher Birbeck, a York surgeon. When Birbeck died in 1717, Drake took over the practice. Ten years later, at the age of 31, he was appointed to the office of city surgeon of York.

In 1720 Drake married Mary Woodyeare, daughter of a former secretary to Sir William Temple, in York Minster. Together they had five sons, although only two of them survived childhood.
Mary Drake died in 1728 at the age of 35 and was buried in the church of St Michael le Belfrey.

Drake had a lifelong interest in history.With the aid of a number of local historians and collectors, Drake compiled the history of York, 'Eboracum', a folio-sized book of around 800 pages with the subtitle The History and Antiquities of the City of York, from its Original to the Present Time; together with the History of the Cathedral Church and the Lives of the Archbishops (published in 1736).

Francis Drake was elected Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and of the Royal Society during his lifetime. In 1741 he was appointed honorary surgeon to the new York County Hospital, retiring in 1756 (although he was relieved of the position during 1745–6 because of his Jacobite sympathies). Between 1751 and 1760, he published thirty volumes of The Parliamentary or Constitutional History of England from the Earliest Times to the Restoration of King Charles II, with a second edition, in twenty-four volumes, appearing in 1763.

In 1767, failing health forced him to leave York to live with his eldest son, Francis, who was the vicar of St Mary's Church, Beverley. He died in Beverley and was buried in the local churchyard.

GB0192-42 · Collectivité · 1290-1835

First mentioned in 1290, the number of elected chamberlains ranged from three to eight. There was typically a chief chamberlain, or "Lord Mayor's Chamberlain" and a number of others either for support or in name only. How desirable the posts were varied over time: in the fifteenth century holders often had to supplement the city's finances from their own, whereas in the seventeen century the posts were seen as the first step on the ladder of civic office. The post was replaced by that of City Treasurer when the Corporation was reformed in 1835.
Replaced by City Treasurer in 1835.

Knowles; John Alder (1881-1961)
GB0192-419 · Personne · 1881-1961

John Alder Knowles was born in 1881, the eldest son of stained glass painter and restorer John Ward Knowles.

In 1903, Knowles travelled to Toronto, Canada, and then to Minneapolis, where he spent the next nine years working at the Ford Brothers stained glass works. On his return to England in 1912 he began to assist his father with his York stained glass business.

Knowles' career was interrupted by his service in both the First World War and the Second World War.

John Alder Knowles was granted an Honorary Master of Arts from the University of Hull in 1957 for his scholarly monograph on the York School of Glass Painting (published in 1936 and illustrated with his own sketches and photographs). During his career he wrote more than 60 articles on the history of stained glass.

Knowles died on 25 November 1961, aged 80.
John Alder Knowles was the eldest son of John Ward Knowles, stained glass painter, and worked with him in the family business J W Knowles & Sons.

Knowles; John Ward (1838-1931)
GB0192-418 · Personne · 1838-1931

John Ward Knowles was born in 1838. He left school at the age of 12.

Following a visit to the Great Exhibition in London with his father in 1851, Knowles enrolled at the newly opened School of Design in York. He continued there as a pupil until 1854, winning prizes for his stained glass work in 1852 and 1854. In around 1858, Knowles moved to London for a year to work for Heaton and Butler, where he developed an interest in photography and architecture.

In 1863, following his return to York, Knowles began to undertake conservation work on the 'Fifteen Last Days of the World' window in All Saints Church. Three years later he was a member of the committee for the 1866 Great Exhibition at Bootham, York.

In 1869 Knowles moved his stained glass business from Goodramgate to Stonegate. Five years later he married Jane Annakin, with whom he had two sons, John Alder and Milward, and four daughters. Both sons would follow him into the family business of J W Knowles & Sons. In 1874 he also bought and began to restore 23 Stonegate (now number 35).

During the 1880s and 1890s Knowles undertook extensive conservation work on the St Cuthbert and St William windows at York Minster, during which process he photographed all the panels before their restoration and rearrangement. He also spent some time working on the stately home Nostell Priory.

John Ward Knowles died on 17 August 1931 at the age of 93.
John Ward Knowles was the father of John Alder Knowles, stained glass painter, who worked with him in the family business J W Knowles & Sons.

Peckitt; William (1731-1795); Mr
GB0192-417 · Personne · 1731-1795

William Peckitt was born in Husthwaite, a village near Easingwold, the son of William, a fellmonger and glove maker, and his wife Ann. He was baptised on 13 April 1731. At some point prior to 1752 the family moved to York, where Peckitt worked in his father's glove making business before establishing himself as a glass painter in Colliergate, York.

Whilst the majority of his commissions were for painted glass, Peckitt also produced a small number of windows which included stained glass. In 1780 he patented an invention for 'blending coloured and stained glass'.

On 3 April 1763 Peckitt married Mary Mitley, daughter of the sculptor Charles Mitley. The couple had 4 daughters. Peckitt worked throughout his life on the maintenance of the medieval glass in York Minster as well as painting new windows there. He also undertook commissions for cathedrals, churches and houses throughout England. He produced windows for a number of colleges including the Alma Mater window for Trinity College.

Peckitt died on 14 October 1795 and was buried in the church of St Martin-cum-Gregory, York.

Huntington Parish Council
GB0192-416 · Collectivité · 1894-Present

The Parish Council represents the local community at council level and is responsible for local matters such as planning applications as well as local facilities including the upkeep of public spaces in the village.

Hungate Mission School
GB0192-414 · Collectivité · 1861-1920s

Hungate Mission School was founded in the March 1861 as Salem Mission School by Mr James Harrison, a member of the Quaker Society of Friends. As well as being a Sunday School, it taught reading, writing and arithmetic on every night of the week except Saturday when the teachers met together to clean up the place for the Sunday services.

The school first opened in Whixleys Court, St Saviourgate, with a teaching staff representing nearly every religious community in the city. It was essentially non-denominational. It eventually left Whixleys Court and moved to a building in Garden Street, Hungate, which had been built by the Weslyan Methodists. At this time the name of the school changed to Hungate Mission School. By this time it was so important a centre that a volume was printed publishing the rules of the school, with two colour plates showing the schoolroom and its arrangements.

The Mission School continued to teach pupils until the 1920s and closed down when the Hungate area began to disappear.

St Peter's School
GB0192-412 · Collectivité · 627-present

St Peter's School was founded by St Paulinus of York in 627 AD, on the same site as York Minster. Little is know about the school's early history.

In 705, St John of Beverley became Head Master. In 741 both the school and Minster burned down. Both were rebuilt by Archbishop Aelberht. In 778, Northumbrian scholar Alcuin became Head Master.

In 1289 the school moved from the site of the current nave of York Minster to a house near the Minster's east end.

The school was given a Royal Charter by Queen Mary in the sixteenth century, and in 1557 moved premises to new buildings in the Horsefair, just outside the city walls.

In 1644 the school buildings were destroyed in the Siege of York, part of the English Civil War. The boys were moved back inside the city walls and the school continued in Bedern, a former refectory and dormitory for clergy.

The school moved again in 1730 to the Bagnio, a Turkish bath on Coney Street, before a further move five years later to the disused church of St Andrew. In 1828 the school amalgamated with York Proprietary School in Clifton, and as part of the merger the new combined school moved to the beautiful buildings of the Proprietary School outside the city walls.

In 1901 the school acquired St Olave's Preparatory School. In 1922 a swimming pool was built, initially as an outdoor pool before being covered over in 1965. The school began to admit female pupils into its sixth form from 1976, and in 1987 St Peter's became co-educational at all levels.

St Peter's purchased Clifton School and Nursery in 1994, allowing continuous education for pupils from the ages of 3 to 18 for the first time. In 2001 St Olave's moved to the Queen Anne site on the lower campus, so all three schools shared the same grounds.

In 2012, the new St Peter's Swimming Pool won the Lord Mayor's Architecture Prize in the York Design Awards.

Mill Mount Grammar School
GB0192-411 · Collectivité · 1920-1985

Mill Mount County Grammar School for girls opened in 1920, in a house purchased and adapted by the local council authority. By March 1921 there were 124 girls enrolled at the school, many of whom having transferred from the overcrowded Queen Anne Grammar School.

In 1922 a chemistry laboratory was added to the building, and three years later a cookery centre was also opened. Further extensions were added in 1935 to provide additional accommodation for the girls, and a games field at Nunthorpe was opened in 1935.

In 1985 the school closed and, together with Nunthorpe Grammar School, became part of the new Millthorpe Secondary School. At this time the school moved to the premises previously occupied by Nunthorpe Grammar School.

Nunthorpe Grammar School
GB0192-410 · Collectivité · 1920-1985

Nunthorpe Grammar School was opened in 1920, in a house in Southlands Road, York. The house had been purchased and refurbished by the council. By March 1921 there were 64 enrolled at the school, which rose to 425 by March 1933.

In 1927 a new wing was opened, with four new classrooms, an art room, two storerooms and a cloakroom. The old stable block was also converted into two laboratories, and the stableboys' sleeping quarters were converted into the school library.

In 1959 a gym was added as well as what was for the next 25 years to be known as the 'new block', the building containing laboratories and classrooms. A Sixth Form block was added in 1974, although this block is now used for science laboratories and languages classrooms. In 1984 a new sports hall was built, however the following year the school closed and, together with Mill Mount Grammar School for Girls, became part of the new Millthorpe Secondary School.

Queen Anne Grammar School
GB0192-409 · Collectivité · 1905-2000

Queen Anne Grammar School for Girls was originally founded in 1905 as Brook Street School, a pupil-teacher centre. The new centre was approved by the Board of Education, and replaced the evening and weekend classes held in Fishergate Board School. In 1906 the school became known as the Municipal Secondary School for Girls, and it was officially recognised as a secondary school two years later.

The Brook Street premises were closed in 1909 and the school moved to a new school building on Queen Anne's Road, Clifton. The new site opened in January 1910, and in 1920 the name officially changed to Queen Anne Grammar School.

The school was converted into a co-educational comprehensive school in 1985. It closed in July 2000.

Bootham School
GB0192-408 · Collectivité · 1823-present

Bootham School was opened in 1823 as a private boarding school. It was was the idea of William Tuke (1732-1822), who had first raised the idea of establishing a boy's school in York for the sons of Quakers in 1818. The school was seen as a solution to the growing numbers of children who were not eligible for Ackworth School near Pontefract. Suitable premises were found in Lawrence Street in 1822 and leased from the Retreat Hospital (run by a Quaker Committee) and the school opened early the following year.

In January 1829 a Quarterly Meeting Committee was appointed to run the school, under the management of John Ford, the 'Superintendant of the Establishment'. It then became known as the Yorkshire Quarterly Meeting Boys' School. By 1833 the school was teaching 50 boys, and the following year it founded its natural history society, believed to be the first in the country. In 1846 the school moved to 20 Bootham, York, however it only became known as Bootham School in 1915. In 1891 the school began to admit boys whose parents were not members of the Society of Friends.

In 1899 a fire at the school destroyed most of the classrooms. The premises was rebuilt and reopened in 1902.

In 1939 the School was evacuated briefly to Ampleforth College, while the buildings at Bootham were prepared for conversion into a hospital.

In the post-war period the School has grown in size and stature. In 1983, it adopted a co-educational system and admitted girls. In 1997, Ebor School, a Junior School, was acquired. In 2002 this moved to a purpose built school and became known as Bootham Junior School. Today Bootham is part of the mainstream independent school system, however it retains its founding Quaker principles, which include the pursuit of learning through science, progressive and reforming ideas, a respect for the individual, creativity and independent thought, and a responsible social conscience.

Hargrove; William (1788-1862)
GB0192-406 · Personne · 1788-1862

William Hargrove was born in Knaresborough, Yorkshire, on 16 October 1788, the youngest child of Ely Hargrove and his second wife. His father intended him to join the church, and he was placed under the care of his godfather, Robert Wyrell, at that time curate of Knaresborough. Wyrell recommended, however, that Hargrove be trained as a journalist, and as a result he was accordingly apprenticed to Mr. Smart of Huddersfield.

Following his apprenticeship Hargrove returned to Knaresborough, before purchasing the York Herald, a weekly newspaper, in 1813. He moved to York, and the first number of the York Herald under his management was published on 13 July 1813. He was editor of the paper for the next 35 years, and during that time expanded the staff to include a reporter, and a correspondent in nearly every town in Yorkshire. Hargrove subsequently bought the shares in the business of his two sleeping partners.

In October 1818 Hargrove entered the corporation of York as a common councilman for Bootham ward. He defended Queen Caroline in the York Herald, and announced her acquittal in 1820 by torchlight from the steps of the Mansion House. In 1827 he successfully promoted, along with Charles Wellbeloved, a scheme for the erection of a Mechanics' Institute, of which he became the first secretary and treasurer. In 1831 he was elected a sheriff of York.

In 1818 Hargrove published a 'History and Description of the ancient City of York'; comprising all the most interesting information already published in Drake's "Eboracum," with new additional content and illustrations. He had initially planned to reprint Francis Drake's Eboracum, but did not have enough support.

Hargrove also published the York Poetical Miscellany; being selections from the best Authors, in 1835. He was a contributor to the poets' corner of the York Herald and the York Courant, and to magazines. He also issued A New Guide for Strangers and Residents in the City of York. ... Hargrove's pocket edition, illustrated in 1842.

Hargrove collected the Roman and mediaeval remains excavated in and around York. About ten years before his death he transferred the whole collection to the museum of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. He died at York on 29 August 1862.

GB0192-405 · Collectivité · 18th Century-1848

The first William Fairbank was a quaker and surveyor who with the help of his son made plans of estates in Derbyshire and Yorkshire. His two sons William and Josiah carried on the business and after that, Josiah and his son took over in 1833. After his son's death in 1848, the company was wound up.
The Fairbanks were involved in the construction of enclosures, railways, canals, roads and waterworks. They operated in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, North Derbyshire and even Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Cheshire, Lancashire and Staffordshire.

Allen; Oswald (1767-?)
GB0192-404 · Personne · 1767-?

Oswald Allen was born at Scarhead Farm near Gayle in 1767, the oldest of ten children of the Reverend James Allen, a hymn writer, and his wife Margaret (nee Wilson).

Oswald went to Free School in Hawes, which was founded by his grandfather, also called Oswald Allen. At the age of 13, he became an apprentice to a relative, Dr Francis Whaley, a York apothecary. In 1799 Allen began to style himself Dr Oswald Allen following the establishment of his medical practice and his founding of the York Dispensary. He later wrote a history of the York Dispensary and was succeeded in the business by his cousin John Wilson.

Oswald Allen married Francis Withers, the sister of one of his dispensary colleagues. In 1820, a 'medicine pot' memorial was dedicated to Dr. Oswald and Francis Allen at St Lawrence's Church in York. In 1833 he began writing his memoirs, which were later donated to York Reference Library.

In 1841, a widowed Oswald retired to Hawes, England with his grandson, Dr. Oswald Allen Moore, a surgeon.
See Also - Allen; Oswald (1767-?)

GB0192-402 · Collectivité · 1903-1960s

The first adult schools were set up by Quakers, with members of the Rowntree family being part of the committee until the late 1960s. Early schools date back to the late 19th century with the York and District Adult School Union first being formed in 1903. They began by establishing schools in some of the newer housing areas of the city and so the number of adult schools rose from 4 to 13 and the number of pupils from 729 to 2648.
Society of Friends; Lord Mayor of York J.W. Rowntree; York Educational Settlement

F. Burgins, Dispensing Chemist
GB0192-400 · Collectivité · 1800-2017

This company began trading in 1800, and by 1901 was operating from premises at 2 Coney Street, York. The business was taken over by the Wright family in 1934. In 1972 Jeremy Wright took over the business and transformed it into a perfumery. It was later purchased by June Yeo and her husband Leonard in 1997. When Mrs Yeo decided to retire in 2011, her former supplier Hanus Wolf bought the business and began trading in October 2011.

The shop closed in July 2017.

Gas Committee
GB0192-40 · Collectivité · 1898-1912

Gas was provided privately in York by the York Gas Light Company and the York Union Gas Light Company who merged to form the York United Gas Light Company in 1844.
See also Parliamentary Committee 1917-1918 re: York Gas Company's Bill

Acomb Windmill
GB0192-399 · Collectivité · 17th Century

Acomb windmill stood on a site near the present water-tower on Severus Hill but on the Acomb side of the boundary. It may have been damaged in the Civil War in the 17th century and appears to have fallen into disuse about this time. Holgate Mill (also referred to as Acomb Windmill) was built on a different site towards the end of the 19th century where it remains today.

York Pageant
GB0192-397 · Collectivité · 1909

The York Pageant was conceived by Mr. George Kirby, Curator of the Exhibition, and produced by Mr. Louis N. Parker who was Master of the Pageant. It was intended that 'the York Pageant represent by dramatic means a continuous history of York from the earliest times down to the siege of York in 1644'. It lasted six days from July 26th - 31st and was held in the grounds of St Mary's Abbey in York.

Varley; William; Mr
GB0192-396 · Personne

William Varley was a quaker and conscientious objector from New Earswick, York. He refused to join the Army Reserve where men were conscripted under the Military Service Act of 1916. He was later sent to prison to serve a sentance for disobeying the command of his Superior Officer when ordered to put on a uniform. While in prison he continued to campaign for the rights of conscientious objectors. In November of 1916 William Varley accepted work of national importance and left prison to do this in January 1917.

York Mechanics' Friendly Society
GB0192-395 · Collectivité · 1832-1850

The idea of a setting up a friendly society was proposed at an annual meeting of the York Mechanics Institute on 26th June 1832. A committee was appointed to establish one in connection with the Institute, with this same committee being incorporated with the Committee of the Institute. At a public meeting on 21st August 1832 in the lecture room of the York Mechanics Institute the proposed rules and regulations of the Mechanics Friendly Society was adopted with the Society being established in October that year. In August 1850 it was first proposed that a meeting be held to discuss the dissolution of the Society and to best divide up the remaining funds. The last of these funds were distributed by October 1850 after which time the Society was no longer in existence.
See Also - Mechanics Institute / Technical College

York Mechanics Friendly Society
GB0192-394 · Collectivité · 1832-1850

The idea of Mechanics Friendly Society was proposed at the Annual Meeting of the York Mechanics Institute held on Tuesday 26th June 1832, a committee was appointed by consider the best way of establishing one in connection with the Institute. This committee was later incorporated with the Committee of the Institute and the proposed rules and regulations of the Friendly Society were read at a public meeting held on Tuesday 21st August 1832 in the lecture room of the York Mechanics Institute.

Smith; Ken (1925-2020); Mr
GB0192-393 · Personne · 1925-2020

Ken Smith was a signaller in the 43rd Wessex Division of the Duke of Cornwalls Light Infantry. Ken received his conscription letter at the age of 18 and joined the army for five years. He was a member of the second wave of allied forces who arrived on June 6th at Gold Beach during the Normandy Landings. During his time in France he fought on Hill One One Two and was injured by shrapnel from Tiger Tank shells at the age of nineteen. He was subsequently sent to a hospital in Brussels before being returning to a hospital in Wales to recover further. After recovering from his injury some months later, Ken served two years in Palestine and Afghanistan, (after the end of the Second World War) where he suffered from acute nephritis caused by injury from a mine that exploded under an armoured vehicle. Ken is now a member of the York Normandy Veterans Association.

Ken Smith died in April 2020 at the age of 95.
York Normandy Veterans Association
See Also - Normandy Veterans Association

Cooke; Ken (1926-Present); Mr
GB0192-392 · Personne · 1926-Present

Ken Cooke was an Infantryman in the Green Howards (Yorkshire Regiment) for eighteen months between 1943 and 1945. He received his letter of conscription at the age of 18 just before Christmas 1943. Before joining the army he worked in a Royal Ordnance Factory as an office boy with his father. Ken was a member of the allied forces who landed on Gold beach on D-Day 1944. Ken was injured by shrapnel from an exploding shell after which he was sent from a field hospital in France, back to a hospital in England. After his recovery he was sent back to France to join up with Canadian troops. They fought their way to Bremmen where Ken suffered from shellshock and was returned again to England where he was demobbed. Ken is now a member of the York Normandy Veterans Association.
York Normandy Veterans Association
See Also - Normandy Veterans Association

Gas Purchase Committee
GB0192-39 · Collectivité · 1871-1878

Gas was provided privately in York by the York Gas Light Company and the York Union Gas Light Company who merged to form the York United Gas Light Company in 1844.

Haydock; Dennis (1923-2017); Mr
GB0192-388 · Personne · 1923-2017

Dennis Haydock was born on 15th December 1923 in Crookes, Sheffield to Ada and Edwin Haydock who were deaf and dumb from childhood. Dennis had one older brother, Eric Haydock who was 4 years his senior. Dennis served in the 1st (Armoured) Batallion Coldstream Guards as a tank Gunner from 1942-1947. After the war, Dennis worked at Sheffield Forge and Rolling Mills and in 1980 he moved to York with his wife and took up work in the Terry's chocolate factory.

Dennis Haydock died in 2017.
See Also - Normandy Veterans Association

York City Rowing Club
GB0192-387 · Collectivité · 1863-Present

The York City Rowing Club was founded in 1863 and continues today with a membership base of over 200.

York Castle Chaplain
GB0192-386 · Collectivité · Nineteenth century

The York Castle prison (originally consisting of Clifford's tower) was the original county prison in york, outside of civic control. City felons were sent there from 1848. By the nineteenth century the prison buildings included the debtor's prison, male and female prisons. Many prisoners were kept at the prison awaiting trial at York assizes.
See Also - York Castle Gaoler

York Castle Gaoler
GB0192-385 · Collectivité · Nineteenth century

The York Castle prison (originally consisting of Clifford's tower) was the original county prison in york, outside of civic control. City felons were sent there from 1848. By the nineteenth century the prison buildings included the debtor's prison, male and female prisons. Many prisoners were kept at the prison awaiting trial at York assizes.
Reported to Keeper of York Castle.
See Also - York Castle Gaoler

York Citizens' Committee
GB0192-382 · Collectivité · 1914-1935

The Committee was set up in 1914 by the Lord Mayor as part of a national scheme to support local people during the First World War. The Committee continued to provide support locally until 1935.

York and District Lambretta Club
GB0192-380 · Collectivité · 1956-1968

The exact start date of the club is unknown although the records suggest c.1956. The club continued to operate with a membership base until c1968 when there are no further records available.

York Gas Company
GB0192-38 · Collectivité · 1912-1948

Formed by a merger of the two competing local private gas companies. The inherited Monk Bridge gas generating site was extended in 1847 and the Hungate site sold in 1850. The works and supply areas were extended various times by Act of Parliament. There was tension between the private company and the Corporation who sought to buy it in 1871 (unsuccessfully) and attempted to block its expansion in Parliament in 1912. Control was transfered to the North-Eastern Gas board in 1948 when electricity and gas were nationalised.
Formed by merger of York Gas Light Company and York Union Gas Light Company in 1844.
Changed name to York Gas Company in 1912

GB0192-379 · Collectivité · 1904-1974?

The 1903 Motor Car Act introducted mandatory registration for both vehicles and drivers, administered by the local council who were to issue and keep a record of the numbers. The number had to be displayed on the vehicle. In 1969 the function transferred to central government, using the same local offices.